Source: California Invasive Plant Council


URL of this page: http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Centaurea_solstitialis.php

Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle)

Yellow starthistle flowerheads
Yellow starthistle flowerheads
Photo courtesy Bob Case

Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is a bushy winter annual (family Asteraceae) that invades 12 million acres in California. Yellow starthistle inhabits open hills, grasslands, open woodlands, fields, roadsides, and rangelands, and it is considered one of the most serious rangeland weeds in the state. It propagates rapidly by seed, and a large plant can produce nearly 75,000 seeds. Several insects from the Mediterranean region, including weevils and flies, have been employed as biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle with minor success.

Cal-IPC Inventory rating: High

Cal-IPC Resources on Centaurea solstitialis

Cal-IPC News Articles

  • Brusati, E., D. Morawitz, et al. (2011). Prioritizing Regional Response to Invasive Plants in the Sierra Nevada. Cal-IPC News. 19: 4, 5, 10.
  • Brusati, E. (2009). The cost of weeds to California. Cal-IPC News. 17: 6,7,13.
  • Schwartz, S. (2009). East Bay volunteers head to the hills and the shores. Cal-IPC News. 16: 8-9.
  • West, W. (2009). Stopping yellow starthistle at its leading edge. Cal-IPC News. 16: 6,11.
  • Dozier, M. (2007). Shasta County citizens take on weeds. Cal-IPC News. 14: 4-5.
  • Aslan, C., M. Hufford, et al. (2006). The need for increased cooperation and coordination in yellow starthistle invasion management in Sierra Nevada foothill rangelands. Cal-IPC Symposium, Rohnert Park, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Eagle, A. J., M. E. Eiswerth, et al. (2006). Economic impacts of yellow starthistle on California ranchers. Cal-IPC Symposium, Rohnert Park, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Hulvey, K. and E. Zavaleta (2006). The effect of native forb abundance on invasion resistance in California grasslands. Cal-IPC Symposium, Rohnert Park, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Smith, R. L., V. F. Carrithers, et al. (2006). Managing rangeland invasive plants with Aminopyralid (MilestoneTM). Cal-IPC Symposium, Rohnert Park, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Cole, K. and N. Molinari (2004). Teaching weeds: California university invasive plant programs. Cal-IPC News. 12: 11.
  • Owen, K. (2004). An island called Santa Cruz: Removing invasives on the Channel Islands. Cal-IPC News. 12: 4-5,13.
  • Richardson, B. (2004). The A-rated north. Cal-IPC News. 12: 4-5,14.
  • Spencer, D. F., S. F. Enloe, et al. (2004). Impacts of mowing and bud destruction on yellow starthistle root dynamics and flowering, Cal-IPC.
  • Woods, D. (2004). Development and release of a plant pathogen as a new biological control of yellow starthistle. Cal-IPC News. 12: 6-7.
  • Donaldson, S. (2003). Fighting weeds in the Tahoe basin. CalEPPC News. 11: 7.
  • Torrence, J. R., J. M. DiTomaso, et al. (2003). Long-term, large-scale, integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California: lower cost follow-up maintenance is vital for successful control program.
  • Yacoub, R. (2003). Cooperative yellow starthistle leading edge mapping project.
  • (2002). Current cartography: First reports of yellow starthistle by county. CalEPPC News. 10: 7.
  • Lane, E. (2002). Yellow starthistle distribution in the West. CalEPPC News 10(1/2): 5.
  • Young, S. L. (2002). Exploring alternative methods for vegetation control and maintenance along roadsides. CalEPPC News. 10: 5-7.
  • Zavaleta, E. S., R. J. Hobbs, et al. (2002). Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. CalEPPC News. 10: 5-7.
  • Horney, M. (2002). New remote sensing tool under evaluation. CalEPPC News. 10: 4.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, et al. (2001). Integrated management of yellow starthistle and medusahead using prescribed burning and clopyralid.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., J. R. Torrence, et al. (2001). Clopyralid drift following aerial application at Fort Hunter Liggett.
  • Torrence, J. R., J. M. DiTomaso, et al. (2001). Large-scale integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California.
  • Bell, C. E., M. Evans, et al. (2000). Exotic pest plants, Calif. Assoc. of Nurserymen, and CalEPPC. CalEPPC News. 9: 9-10.
  • Pitcairn, M. (2000). All weeds that have approved biological control agents, accidental introductions and others. CalEPPC News. 8.
  • (1999). Richmond weed abatement ordinance. CalEPPC News. 7: 10.
  • Butler, E. and S. Britting (1998). Mapping and control of weeds in the American River Parkway.
  • DiTomaso, J. (1998). Results of the CalEPPC questionnaire at Symposium '98 in Ontario. CalEPPC News. 6: 4.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., C. Benefield, et al. (1998). Reproductive biology of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) maximizing late season control.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, et al. (1998). Prescribed burning for control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and enhanced native plant diversity.
  • Kelly, M. (1997). Lessons from the front: Taking stock to avoid surprises. CalEPPC NEWS. 5: 4-7.
  • Stein, E. D. and V. Vartanian (1997). Killing the beast: A cooperative approach for control of Arundo donax in the Santa Ana River watershed. CalEPPC News. 5: 4-6,8.
  • Hastings, M. and J. DiTomaso (1996). The use of fire for yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) management and restoration of native grasslands at Sugarloaf Ridge State Park. CalEPPC News. 4: 4-6.
  • (1995). Biological control of invasive exotic pest plant species: A report on the importance of maintaining and enhancing our nation's biological control capabilities. CalEPPC News. 3: 6-10.
  • DiTomaso, J. M. (1995). Overview of extension non-crop weed research in California.
  • Rusmore, J. T. (1995). Use of fire and cutting to control yellow starthistle.
  • (1994). Exotic pest plants of greatest ecological concern in California September 1994. CalEPPC News. 2: 10.
  • Pitcairn, M. (1994). Yellow starthistle experimental group - report of the CalEPPC working group. CalEPPC News. 2: 10.
  • (1993). California Exotic Pest Plant Council draft list exotic plants of greatest concern October 1993. CalEPPC News. 1: 6.
  • (1993). Working group reports on weed control methods and applications for Arundo, french broom, german ivy, hoary cress, yellow starthistle, and pampasgrass. CalEPPC News. 1: 8-10.

Cal-IPC Symposium Proceedings

  • Carey, C. and S. C. Hart (2011). Alteration of nitrogen cycling processes by exotic annuals in a California grassland. Cal-IPC 2011 Symposium. Tahoe City, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Dedon, M. F., M. E. Fry, et al. (2010). Pacific Gas and Electric Company's use of Safe Harbor agreements to enhance habitat for endangered species in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cal-IPC 2010 Symposium. Ventura, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Betts, S., C. Tuell-Todd, et al. (2009). Time and temperature requirements for thermal death of seeds of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.). Cal-IPC Symposium 2009. Visalia, CA California Invasive Plant Council.
  • L., S. J., S. Wright, et al. (2009). Tulare County WMA cost-share for invasive weed control. Cal-IPC Symposium 2009. Visalia, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Swope, S. and I. Parker (2009). Density, compensation and the persistence of yellow starthistle populations across California. Cal-IPC Symposium 2009. Visalia, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • West, W. (2008). Stop-the-spread of yellow starthistle into the Sierra Nevada mountain range: Early detection and eradication on a regional scale. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2008. Chico, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Young, S., J. DiTomaso, et al. (2007). Measuring roots, in situ, of two late summer perennial plant species, Elymus glaucus and Grindelia camporum, and an invasive annual species, Centaurea solstitialis. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2007. San Diego, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Smith, L., M. Cristofaro, et al. (2007). Evaluation of the rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne, a new biological control agent of yellow starthistle. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2007. San Diego, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • O'Brien, J., J. D. Tomaso, et al. (2007). The effects of Puccinia jaceae on yellow starthistle competition and growth. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2007. San Diego, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Knapp, J., S. Ratay, et al. (2007). Eradicating 25 species- Challenges and successes of switching from population to seed bank management on Catalina Island, California. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2007. San Diego, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Claassen, V. and S. Young (2007). Native plant restoration along highway rights-of-way in California. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2007. San Diego, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Aslan, C., M. Hufford, et al. (2006). The need for increased cooperation and coordination in yellow starthistle invasion management in Sierra Nevada foothill rangelands. Cal-IPC Symposium. Rohnert Park, CA.
  • Eagle, A. J., M. E. Eiswerth, et al. (2006). Economic impacts of yellow starthistle on California ranchers. Cal-IPC Symposium. Rohnert Park, CA.
  • Hulvey, K. and E. Zavaleta (2006). The effect of native forb abundance on invasion resistance in California grasslands. Cal-IPC Symposium. Rohnert Park, CA.
  • Smith, R. L., V. F. Carrithers, et al. (2006). Managing rangeland invasive plants with Aminopyralid (MilestoneTM). Cal-IPC Symposium. Rohnert Park, CA.
  • Carrithers, V., B. Miller, et al. (2005). Aminopyralid: A new reduced risk active ingredient for control of broadleaf invasive and noxious weeds. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
  • Clines, J. (2005). Preventing weed spread via contaminated hay and straw. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M. (2005). Efficacy and safety of new herbicides on the horizon. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
  • Smith, L., M. Cristofaro, et al. (2005). Status of new agents for biological control of yellow starthistle and Russian thistle. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
  • Spencer, D. F., M. J. Pitcairn, et al. (2005). Effect of fertilizer additions on yellow starthistle insect biological control agents. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
  • Sperber, T. and F. T. Griggs (2005). Suppressing exotic weeds on restoration projects using an aggressive herbaceous understory. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
  • Clines, J., J. DiTomaso, et al. (2004). Fire working group. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Heiple, P. and K. Himes (2004). Volunteer exotic removal efforts and success at Egdewood County Park and Preserve, San Mateo County, California. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • W. L. B., D. G. Luster, et al. (2004). Status of Puccinea jacea var. solstitialis in 2004 for biological control of yellow starthistle in California. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Keeley, J. E. (2004). Fire management impacts on invasive species at the wildland/urban interface in California. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Lortie, C. J., J. Hierro, et al. (2004). Seed and seedbank dynamics of the highly invasive weed yellow starthistle. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Pirosko, C. and S. Schoenig (2004). Forbs working group. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Spencer, D. F., S. F. Enloe, et al. (2004). Impacts of mowing and bud destruction on yellow starthistle root dynamics and flowering. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Warner, J. (2004). Funding invasive plant projects through the farm bill. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Carruthers, R. and J. Buettner (2003). Biocontrols: Progress and ongoing needs. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. (2003). Fire: Prescribed burning as a management tool. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
  • Donaldson, S., W. West, et al. (2003). Getting the job done: Working within the regulatory environment at Lake Tahoe to manage weeds. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
  • Kirk, A. A., T. Widmer, et al. (2003). The potential contribution of natural enemies from Mediterranean Europe to the management of the invasive weed Arundo donax (Graminae; Arundinae) in the U.S. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
  • Widmer, T. L., A. A. Kirk, et al. (2003). The European Biological Control Laboratory: Contributing to successful management of invasive species in the U.S. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
  • Jones, T. and J. DiTomaso (2002). Yellow starthistle control using native grassland restoration. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2002. Sacramento, CA.
  • Smith, L., M. Cristofaro, et al. (2002). Biological control programs for yellow starthistle and Russian thistle. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2002. Sacramento, CA.
  • Torrence, J., J. M. DiTomaso, et al. (2002). Long-term, large-scale, integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solsitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California: Lower cost follow-up maintenance is vital for successful control program. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2002. Sacramento, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, et al. (2001). Integrated management of yellow starthistle and medusahead using prescribed burning and clopyralid. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2001. San Diego, CA.
  • Gelbard, J. L. and S. Harrison (2001). Interactive effects of roads, soils, and exposure on invasion of Calif. grasslands. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2001. San Diego, CA.
  • Torrence, J. R., J. M. DiTomaso, et al. (2001). Large-scale integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2001. San Diego, CA.
  • Briscoe, E. and T. Anderson (2000). War on weeds - invasive weed education and outreach program. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Romanowitz, H. (2000). Using volunteers in regional mapping programs. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Smith, L. (2000). Biological control of yellow starthistle. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Thomsen, C. D. (2000). Bear Creek watershed restoration program. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Yacoub, R. (2000). Cooperative yellow starthistle leading edge mapping project. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Young, J. A. and C. D. Clements (2000). Purple starthistle seed germination. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Young, J. A., C. D. Clements, et al. (2000). Purple starthistle seed germination. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. M. Kelly. Ontario, CA.
  • Benefield, C. B. (1999). Private and public funding opportunities: Sources of funding for weed management programs. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '99. Sacramento, CA.
  • Cooper, V. K. and B. J. Moritsch (1999). Weeding the wilderness: Non-native plant management at Point Reyes National Seashore. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '99. Sacramento, CA.
  • Jetter, K. M. (1999). The economics of invasive species prevention. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '99. Sacramento, CA.
  • Martin, E. L. and I. D. Martin (1999). Prescribing burning and competitive reseeding as tools for reducing yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis) at Pinnacles National Monument. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '99. Sacramento, CA.
  • Butler, E. and S. Britting (1998). Mapping and control of weeds in the American River Parkway. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '98. Ontario, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., C. Benefield, et al. (1998). Reproductive biology of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) maximizing late season control. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '98. Ontario, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, et al. (1998). Prescribed burning for control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and enhanced native plant diversity. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '98. Ontario, CA.
  • Sanders, A. C. (1998). Invasive exotics in California: A perspective from inland Southern California. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '98. Ontario, CA.
  • Carrithers, V. F. (1997). Using Transline* herbicide to control invasive plants. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '97. Concord, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M. (1997). Risk analysis of various weed control methods. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '97. Concord, CA.
  • Gerlach, J. D. (1997). How the west was lost: Reconstructing the invasion dynamics of yellow star-thistle and other plant invaders of western rangelands and natural areas. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '97. Concord, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M. (1996). Yellow starthistle: Biology and life history. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M. (1996). Yellow starthistle: Chemical control. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
  • Gerlach, J. (1996). Centaurea solstitialis and the water balance research. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
  • Hastings, M. S. and J. M. DiTomaso (1996). Fire controls yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis) in California grasslands. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
  • Pitcairn, M. (1996). Yellow starthistle control methods: Biological control. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
  • Thomsen, C. D., W. A. Williams, et al. (1996). Yellow starthistle management with grazing, mowing, and competitive plantings. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
  • DiTomaso, J. M. (1995). Overview of extension non-crop weed research in California. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '95. J. Lovich, J. Randall and M. Kelly. Pacific Grove, CA.
  • Rusmore, J. T. (1995). Use of fire and cutting to control yellow starthistle. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '95. M. Kelly and J. Lovich. Pacific Grove, CA.
  • Pitcairn, M. (1993). Introduction and distribution of biological control agents against exotic weeds in California. California Exotic Pest Plant Symposium '93. Westlake Village, CA.

Other Resources on Centaurea solstitialis