Carpobrotus edulis

Carpobrotus edulis_hottentot fig_JM DiTomaso
Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso

Common names: highway iceplant

Carpobrotus edulis (Hottentot-fig or iceplant) is a succulent shrub (family Aizoaceae) found throughout coastal California and the Channel Islands, especially in areas with a warm winter climate. Introduced as an ornamental plant, Carpobrotus edulis now inhabits coastal scrub, grasslands, chaparral, bluffs, dunes and beaches where it creates dense mats that increase soil organic matter over time, allowing new non-native species to invade. Carpobrotus edulis propagates by seed and vegetatively. Even small stem fragments can regenerate into a new plant, making control difficult.

Rating: High

Cal-IPC Resources

  • Plant Assessment Form - Information gathered by Cal-IPC on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in California. Does not include management information.
  • CalWeedMapper - Statewide maps, climate models, and reports.
  • Cal-IPC News - Our quarterly newsletter. Each issue is available as a pdf.
  • Cal-IPC Symposium Proceedings - Presentations and papers from our annual Symposium.
  • Don't Plant a Pest! - Select your region to find non-invasive alternatives to ornamental species. Also see our statewide brochure on trees.

Other Resources

Symposium Presentations

  • Tuttle, E., K. Johnston, et al. (2011). Evaluating distribution and prevalence of non-native vegetation percent cover in a Southern California wetland and its application to inform habitat restoration and non-native vegetation control. Cal-IPC 2011 Symposium. Tahoe City, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Knapp, D. A. (2010). Contrasting effects of Carpobrotus edulis on arthropods in a coastal dune ecosystem. Cal-IPC 2010 Symposium. Ventura, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
  • Drennan, P. M. and L. Zakrzewski (2004). The effect of soil salinity and flooding on the growth Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.B. Br.: Implications for its spread into the Ballona Wetlands. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Pickart, A. (2003). A decade of dune restoration at the Lanphere Dunes. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
  • Briscoe, E. and T. Anderson (2000). War on weeds - invasive weed education and outreach program. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
  • Cooper, V. K. and B. J. Moritsch (1999). Weeding the wilderness: Non-native plant management at Point Reyes National Seashore. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '99. Sacramento, CA.
  • Boyd, D. (1997). Eucalyptus removal on Angel Island. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '97. Concord, CA.

Cal-IPC News Articles

  • Schwartz, S. (2009). East Bay volunteers head to the hills and the shores. Cal-IPC News. 16: 8-9.
  • (2006). "Conservation Across Borders" in San Jose. Cal-IPC News. 14: 11-12.
  • Wheeler, J. (2000). BLM uses heavy equipment to give weeds the heave-ho! CalEPPC News. 8: 14.
  • (1999). Richmond weed abatement ordinance. CalEPPC News. 7: 10.
  • Kelly, M. (1999). Roundup of Arundo projects reveals commitment, strategic weakness. CalEPPC News. 7: 4-9.
  • Fry, V. (1998). Fort Ord readies the troops for war - on weeds! CalEPPC News. 6: 4-5,8.
  • Albert, M. E. (1995). Portrait of an invader II: The ecology and management of Carpobrotus edulis. CalEPPC News. 3: 4-6.
  • (1994). Exotic pest plants of greatest ecological concern in California September 1994. CalEPPC News. 2: 10.
  • Theiss, K. (1995). Lupine removal by heavy equipment. CalEPPC News. 3: 7.
  • (1993). California Exotic Pest Plant Council draft list exotic plants of greatest concern October 1993. CalEPPC News. 1: 6.