Common names: fennel; sweet fennel; sweet anise
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) is an erect perennial herb (family Apiaceae). Although the plant is very common throughout the state, dense local populations have been reported from Santa Cruz Island, in fields around the San Francisco Bay region, Palos Verdes Peninsula (Los Angeles County), and Camp Pendleton (San Diego County). It can drastically alter the composition and structure of many plant communities, including grasslands, coastal scrub, riparian, and wetland communities. It is still unclear whether culinary varieties of fennel are invasive.Rating: Moderate
- Plant Assessment Form - Information gathered by Cal-IPC on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in California. Does not include management information.
- CalWeedMapper - Statewide maps, climate models, and reports.
- Cal-IPC News - Our quarterly newsletter. Each issue is available as a pdf.
- Cal-IPC Symposium Proceedings - Presentations and papers from our annual Symposium.
- Don't Plant a Pest! - Select your region to find non-invasive alternatives to ornamental species. Also see our statewide brochure on trees.
- Species account from Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Includes biology and management information.
- California distribution map - Maps based on survey data from county Weed Management Areas. These maps are the product of those working in the field and are not intended to be definitive.
- USDA PLANTS database -
Federal database with information on identification and distribution, and links to websites in individual states.
- Jepson Online Interchange for California Flora - Information on taxonomy, biology, and distribution from the UC Berkeley Jepson Herbarium.
- CalFlora - Distribution information by county based on submitted observations and herbarium specimens.
- The Nature Conservancy Element Stewardship Abstract - Information compiled by TNC land managers. Photos included for some species.
- CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
- Natural Resource Projects Inventory - State database with information on resource management projects throughout California. Query by the species of interest.
- Klinger, R. (2010). Desire, disappointment, surprises, and food webs: melding conservation and ecological perspectives to better understand animal-invasive plant interactions. Cal-IPC 2010 Symposium Ventura, CA, California Invasive Plant Council
- Power, P., J. R. Roberts, et al. (2010). Successful tactics for controlling invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. Cal-IPC 2010 Symposium. Ventura, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
- Liu, H. (2009). Assessing the effects of Foeniculum vulgare on seedling germination, soil legacy effects and restoration strategies. Cal-IPC Symposium 2009. Visalia, Ca, California Invasive Plant Council.
- Olesen, C., D. Doran, et al. (2009). Evaluating the seed bank of a disturbed site to determine potential ecological restoration strategies. Cal-IPC Symposium 2009. Visalia, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
- Dahlin, K., G. Asner, et al. (2008). Using airborne remote sensing to map sweet fennel on Santa Cruz Island. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2008. Chico, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
- Gwinn, A. (2006). The cost and effectiveness of small-scale fennel control methods. Cal-IPC Symposium. Rohnert Park, CA.
- Easley, T., D. Bieber, et al. (2005). The fennel battle on MCB Camp Pendleton: Partnerships and techniques in combating the invasion. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
- Bell, C. E., K. Roesch, et al. (2004). Finding effective herbicide treatments for fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
- Connick, S. and M. Gerel (2004). Partnering to prevent invasions of plants of horticultural origin. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
- Dickerson, E., C. Brigham, et al. (2004). Ecohelpers: Education and ecological restoration in Southern California. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
- Erskine, J. (2000). The plant community effects of a burn and two herbicide sprays on a fennel infested grassland in the Central Valley of Santa Cruz Island, California. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA
- Gibson, J. K. (2000). The presence of fennel affects the distribution of lizards on Santa Cruz Island. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. Concord, CA.
- Archbald, G. (1998). Mechanical control methods: beyond weed bashing. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '98. Ontario, CA.
- Boyd, D. (1995). Use of fire to control French broom. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '95. J. Lovich, J. Randall and M. Kelly. Pacific Grove, CA.
Cal-IPC News Articles
- Schwartz, S. (2009). East Bay volunteers head to the hills and the shores. Cal-IPC News. 16: 8-9.
- Connick, S. and M. Gerel (2005). Don't sell a pest: A new partnership to prevent plant invasions through horticulture. Cal-IPC News. 13: 4-5,14.
- Cole, K. and N. Molinari (2004). Teaching weeds: California university invasive plant programs. Cal-IPC News. 12: 11.
- Owen, K. (2004). An island called Santa Cruz: Removing invasives on the Channel Islands. Cal-IPC News. 12: 4-5,13.
- Zavaleta, E. S., R. J. Hobbs, et al. (2002). Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. CalEPPC News. 10: 5-7.
- Kelly, M. (2000). Education: Wildland weed tours and talks. CalEPPC News. 8: 3-4.
- (1999). Richmond weed abatement ordinance. CalEPPC News. 7: 10.
- Kelly, M. (1999). Roundup of Arundo projects reveals commitment, strategic weakness. CalEPPC News. 7: 4-9.
- DiTomaso, J. (1998). Results of the CalEPPC questionnaire at Symposium '98 in Ontario. CalEPPC News. 6: 4.
- Goode, S. (1998). Legendary stewardship award. CalEPPC News. 6: 10.
- Madison, J. (1996). Highways as corridors of dispersal. CalEPPC News. 4: 9.
- (1994). Exotic pest plants of greatest ecological concern in California September 1994. CalEPPC News. 2: 10.