Synonyms: Euphorbia esula; Euphorbia discolor, Euphorbia virgata, Euphorbia gmelinii
Common names: leafy spurge; faitours-grass; wolf's milk
Euphorbia virgata (leafy spurge) is a perennial (family Euphorbiaceae) rhizomatous erect herb. Euphorbia esula can be found in scattered locations throughout northern California and crowding out native plant species. It can invade and dominate a variety of vegetation types, including prairies, grasslands and pine savannahs.Rating: High
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- Cal-IPC News - Our quarterly newsletter. Each issue is available as a pdf.
- Cal-IPC Symposium Proceedings - Presentations and papers from our annual Symposium.
- Don't Plant a Pest! - Select your region to find non-invasive alternatives to ornamental species. Also see our statewide brochure on trees.
- Species account from Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Includes biology and management information.
- USDA PLANTS database -
Federal database with information on identification and distribution, and links to websites in individual states.
- Jepson Online Interchange for California Flora - Information on taxonomy, biology, and distribution from the UC Berkeley Jepson Herbarium.
- CalFlora - Distribution information by county based on submitted observations and herbarium specimens.
- The Nature Conservancy Element Stewardship Abstract - Information compiled by TNC land managers. Photos included for some species.
- Encycloweedia - Plants rated as noxious weeds by the California Department of Food and Agriculture.
- CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
- Natural Resource Projects Inventory - State database with information on resource management projects throughout California. Query by the species of interest.
- O'Connell, R. A. (1999). The state of California's noxious weed eradication programs. California Exotic Pest Plant Council. Sacramento, CA.
- Brown, W. Y. and A. G. Brown (1998). Campaign against invasive species: A call for action. California Exotic Pest Council '98 Symposium. Ontario, CA.
- O'Connell, R. A. (1997). Hydrilla: A case study: The state of California's noxious weed eradication programs. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '97. Concord, CA.
- Thomsen, C. D., W. A. Williams, et al. (1996). Yellow starthistle management with grazing, mowing, and competitive plantings. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '96. San Diego, CA.
- Westbrooks, R. G. (1995). Federal regulatory efforts to minimize the introduction and impacts of exotic pest plants in the United States. CalEPPC Symposium '95. Asilomar, CA.
Cal-IPC News Articles
- Case, B. (2011). Dangerous and invasive Euphorbias in California. Cal-IPC News. 18: 8, 9.
- Brusati, E. (2009). The cost of weeds to California. Cal-IPC News. 17: 6,7,13.
- (1995). Biological control of invasive exotic pest plant species: A report on the importance of maintaining and enhancing our nation's biological control capabilities. CalEPPC News. 3: 6-10.
- Brigham, C. (2005). High school students take on carnation spurge. Cal-IPC News. 13: 6.
- Richardson, B. (2004). The A-rated north. Cal-IPC News. 12: 4-5,14.
- Kelly, M. (1999). Roundup of Arundo projects reveals commitment, strategic weakness. CalEPPC News. 7: 4-9.
- Schneider, D. (1994). Slow-motion explosion: The exponential spread of exotic species. CalEPPC News. 2: 6-8.