Plant Assessment Form

Halogeton glomeratus

Synonyms: Anabasis glomeratus

Common Names: Halogeton

Evaluated on: 2/26/04

List committee review date: 14/05/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Rob Wilson, Farm Advisor
UCCE
707 Nevada St. Susanville, CA 96130
530-251-8132
rgwilson@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
Cynthia Roye
Alison Stanton
Joe DiTomaso
Peter Warner

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score BBBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
17 Total Score A
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal A. High Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Observational
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

<p>Halogeton populations increase salinity levels at the soil surface (act as a salt pump). One study found increased nutrient levels (NO3, P, K, Na) and soil bacteria diversity in an area heavily infested with halogeton for 20+ years compared to adjacent native winterfat communities. Halogeton concentrates salts into plant tissue and then deposit the salts on the soil surface as plant material decays. Leachates from halogeton mulch alter chemical and physical properties of soil and can inhibit the germination of other plant species.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. Roundy, Bruce A. 1987. Seedbed salinity and the establishment of range plants. In: Frasier, Gary W.; Evans, Raymond A., eds. Proceedings of symposium: "Seed and seedbed ecology of rangeland plants"; 1987 April 21-23; Tucson, AZ. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 68-81. [4062] Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553. Duda, Jeffery J. et al. 2003. Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halogeton glomeratus. Biology &amp; Fertility of Soils. 38(2). July: 72-77</p>


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

<p>Halogeton is well adapted to saline-alkaline soils in salt-desert shrubland and surrounding big sagebrush steppe. After disturbance, halogeton can become a dominant species in areas void of competing vegetation. Halogeton is problematic following disturbance from overgrazing, construction, agriculture, or fire. Halogeton usually does not become dominant in undisturbed saline-alkaline soils with vigorous competing vegetation. Halogeton can tolerate high saline-sodic soil conditions unlike most summer annual forbs. This adaptability allows halogeton to grow in areas few other plants can tolerate. Halogeton interacts with the regeneration ecology of valuble native perennial half-shrubs found in the Intermountain Region. Halogeton is not competitive with most established perennials (saltgrass, big sagebrush, greasewood, etc.) and aggressive winter annuals (cheatgrass, medusahead, etc.) since it does not produce a large shoot or root system early in the growing season to capitalize on available spring soil moisture (especially in low summer precipitation climates).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. [Online] Halogeton, Encyloweedia description. Available: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HALOGETO2.html Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553.</p>


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

<p>Since the early 1950's, reports have confirmed halogeton can poision sheep and cattle, but little information is available on halogeton's potential to poison brose animals such as deer and antelope. Since halogeton has poor palatability and produces toxic oxalates, it's pretty safe to assume large, dense, halogeton infestations reduce forage availability for browse animals. .Halogeton leaves and stems contain soluble oxalates at toxic levels.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553. [Online] Dewey, Steve. Halogeton glomeratus. Cal IPC red alert fact sheet. Available: http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=53&amp;surveynumber=182</p>


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D

<p>Unlikely. I don't believe there are any native CA species in the Halogeton or Salsola genus.</p>


Sources of information:

Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe role of disturbance:

<p>Halogeton primarly establishes in disturbed areas following overgrazing and mechanical soil disturbance. Halogeton can establish following natural disturbances such a fire. Since halogeton is well adapted to saline-sodic soils, it is often on the first ruderal species to establish on these sites following disturbance. Halogeton can also establish on saline-sodic soils that lack vegetation cover due to high soluble salt or sodium accumulation at the soil surface.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. [Online] Halogeton, Encyloweedia description. Available: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HALOGETO2.html</p>


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe rate of spread:

<p>In salt desert shrubland, halogeton can spread extremely fast. From a BLM survey conducted in 1957, Halogeton spread over 30,000 acres in CA, 4 million acres in Nevada, and 1 million acres in UT from 1954 to 1957. Halogeton grows well on disturbed sites in salt desert shrubland and spreads over long distances by wind and human transport. Since the majority of salt desert shrubland has been greatly disturbed by repeated grazing in the early 1900's, halogeton has a large opportuntity for establishment.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553.</p>


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Other Published Material
Describe trend:

<p>Halogeton has likely spread to most of it's potential CA ecotypes. On problem with estimating halogeton population trends is it's flucatation in population between year to year. Halogeton establishment is related to disturbance and climate regimes. During drought periods, halogeton populations often increase, and during wet periods, halogeton sites become invaded by cheatgrass. Halogeton infestations can vary in size due to disturbance levels, and halogeton is susceptable to invasion by russian thistle and cheatgrass.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553.</p>


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

<p>6 points; Halogeton is an annual that reproduces exclusively by seed. Halogeton can produce over 110,000 seeds per plant. Seeds are black or brown. Most black seeds germinate the year after production, and brown seeds often are viable but dormant for 2-10 years. Halogeton's production of brown seeds allows a population to persist for several years even if short term environmental conditions are unsuitable.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553.</p>


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

<p>Halogeton seed is often spread by attaching to vehicles and equipment. Road construction and graders spread halogeton. Halogeton can also be spread with livestock.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. [Online] Halogeton, Encyloweedia description. Available: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HALOGETO2.html</p>


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

<p>Halogeton can spread over long distances by wind (tumbleweed). Whirlwinds can transport stems up to 2 miles. Halogeton is also spread by rabbits and western harvester ants.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553.</p>


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

<p>Halogeton exists in several other states, but only in ecological types that it has already invaded in CA.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Halogeton glomeratus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553.</p>


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? B Observational

Halogeton was first identified in CA in 1949 in eastern Lassen County along the Nevada Border. The infestation was primarly confined to the Sierra Army Depot at Herlong. From 1954-1980, Halogeton spread to Inyo, Kern, Lassen, Los Angeles, Modoc, Mono, and Nevada Counties. From 1980, Halogeton spread to San Bernardino, Placer, and Siskiyou counties. Specific ecological types in Worksheet C were not confirmed with ecological maps.


Sources of information:

Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553. Halogeton, Encyloweedia description. Available: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HALOGETO2.html Calflora database


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? B Observational
Describe distribution:

Abundance and distribution varies with yearly rainfall. Most infestation occur in Great Basin portions of CA, either in the trans Sierra Nevada or the Mojave Desert portion of southern California. In 1957, BLM estimated 90,250 acres were infested in CA, but acreage has likely increased significantly.


Sources of information:

Young, James; Martinelli, Philip; Eckert, Richard; and Evans, Raymond. 1999. Halogeton: A History of Mid-20th Century Range Conservation in the Intermountain Area. USDA-ARS Misc. Publication 1553. Halogeton, Encyloweedia description. Available: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/weedinfo/HALOGETO2.html Calflora database


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Yes
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 7
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)C, 5% - 20%
Great Basin scrubB, 20% - 50%
chenopod scrubC, 5% - 20%
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieU, Unknown
valley and foothill grasslandC, 5% - 20%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seepU, Unknown
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandU, Unknown
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodlandD, < 5%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): B

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Mojave Desert
  • Great Basin Province
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Southwest