Plant Assessment Form

Eucalyptus globulus

Synonyms: Eucalyptus maidenii subsp. globulus (Labill.) J.B.Kirkp.

Common Names: blue gum; Tasmanian blue gum; blue gum eucalyptus; common eucalyptus; Southern blue gum; Victorian blue gum

Evaluated on: original 3/2004, re-assessed 3/14; finalized 3/2015

List committee review date: 15/08/2017

Re-evaluation date: 03/13/2015

Evaluator(s)

Kristina Wolf, PhD Candidate
UC Davis Dept. of Plant Sciences
PES 1210 Mail Stop 1, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616
kmwolf@ucdavis.edu
Joseph DiTomaso, Cooperative Extension Weed Specialist
UC Davis Dept. of Plant Sciences
PES 1210 Mail Stop 1, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso (UC Davis)
Dean Kelch (CDFA)
Ramona Robison (State Parks)
Elizabeth Brusati (Cal-IPC)
Doug Johnson (Cal-IPC)
Alison Forrestel (NPS)
Peter Warner (consulting botanist)

General Comments

<p>A pdf file of this information is available at <a title="eucalyptus page" href="../../../ip/inventory/eucalyptus2.php.">http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/eucalyptus2.php. </a><br /><br /></p>
<p>The document is an expert-reviewed assessment of the ecological impacts of<em> Eucalyptus globulus</em> in California. Of some 1,800 non-native plants that grow outside of cultivation in California, Cal-IPC has rated approximately 200 as Limited, Moderate, or High level invasive plants based on severity of impact, ability to spread, and extent. (For more information, see <a title="inventory" href="../../../ip/inventory">www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory</a>.) Cal-IPC ratings are designed to inform those managing lands for ecological values (such as native wildlife habitat) about the potential impacts of a given plant. Ratings are informative, not prescriptive; they are generalized, not site-specific. Ratings do not determine the overall value of particular plants in particular places, and the term &ldquo;invasive&rdquo; should not be construed as a universal condemnation.</p>
<p><br /><em>Eucalyptus globulus</em>, Tasmanian blue gum, was last assessed by Cal-IPC in 2006 as part of a major initiative to update and document assessments for some 200 plant species. In 2014, Cal-IPC reassessed E. globulus. This new assessment revises scores for some criteria and results in a change in overall score from &ldquo;Moderate&rdquo; to &ldquo;Limited.&rdquo; To large degree this change is due to evaluating<em> E. globulus</em> across the entire state, rather than focusing on coastal areas where it is most prone to spreading.</p>
<p><br />Blue gum eucalyptus is unique among naturalized non-native plant species in California. Its rich cultural history is documented in detail by Jared Farmer in <em>Trees in Paradise: A California History</em> (Norton, 2013). While most plants listed by Cal-IPC have spread into wildlands on their own, blue gum was actively planted in natural areas for timber, windbreaks and aesthetics. The stands existing today are those that were planted in an earlier time. <em>E. globulus</em> were most typically planted in grasslands, yet their most logical native analog habitat is oak or bay laurel woodland; this assessment aims to assess the most relevant comparison for each criterion.</p>
<p><br />Some stands were planted so densely that few other plants grow within the stand, while less dense stands often contain more plant diversity. Some stands are regenerating and expanding in size, while others in less favorable conditions are not. Some stands are within areas now being managed primarily for ecological values, others are not. Where stands do occur in areas being managed for ecological values, it makes clear sense to assess their ecological impact as an invasive plant. Plantations that are not regenerating or expanding are not considered &ldquo;invasive&rdquo; in the customary use of the term. Management decisions for stands in urban areas will necessarily involve consideration of a range of factors, such as recreational and aesthetic values and the trees&rsquo; much-debated role in wildfire risk. For these stands, the information provided in this assessment can help assess impacts on native habitat, which may also be a factor in management decisions.</p>

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score BBBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment C. Minor Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
8 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Observational
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Observational
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

<p><em>E. globulus</em> alters fire regime and groundwater availability. (Potential for allelopathy was examined but is not included.) These impacts can be significant in circumstances where blue gum were planted at high density and growing conditions are favorable for the species, and less significant in other places.</p>
<p><br /><strong>Alteration of fire regime:</strong><br />In comparing wildfire parameters in blue gum stands versus native oak woodland (a comparable native habitat structure) fuel loads are significantly greater. E. globulus stands can accumulate significantly higher fuel loads than native woodlands. One study found fuel loads of 31 tons/acre in E. globulus stands as compared to 19 tons/acre in California bay forest and 12 tons/acre in coast live oak woodlands (National Park Service 2006). (Factors of ignition and relative flammability are not considered here.)</p>
<p><br />Wildfire in grasslands is typically more frequent and less intense than wildfire in heavily wooded areas (whether native or non-native). Higher fire intensity can impact soils as well as seed mortality in the soil seed bank.</p>
<p><br /><strong>Alteration of groundwater availability:</strong><br />The high water consumption of E. globulus is well known (Rejmanek &amp; Richardson 2011) and eucalyptus species have been used by development agencies to drain swampy areas in efforts to reduce malaria (see for instance the Wikipedia entry for Eucalyptus). E. globulus and E. camuldensis (red gum) are used in environmental remediation projects. An example of this is PG&amp;E&rsquo;s 30 acre plantation in Lake County, California. At that site the trees are used to provide hydraulic control of groundwater beneath a landfill. The object of this remediation is to suppress groundwater and keep it from contacting geothermal wastes placed in the landfill (Deutsch 2015).</p>
<p><br />Lateral roots can extend 30 m or more from the trunk, and in deep soils with high water tables, roots can penetrate to depths of 14 m (DiTomaso &amp; Healy 2007). According to DiTomaso &amp; Healy (2007) E. globulus are able to withstand prolonged dry summers by tapping into deep water reservoirs as well as by economizing water use through stomatal control. Their far-reaching root systems can extract water from the soil at even higher soil moisture tensions than most mesophytic plants (Pryor 1976, Florence 1996). The National Park Service is beginning to study groundwater response to eucalyptus removal, for instance on the Channel Islands (Power 2014).</p>
<p><br />In coastal zones, fog drip under blue gum stands can be substantial, which accounts for the ability of coastal stands to regenerate (Yost 2014). A study in San Francisco found fog drip from eucalyptus drip can add as much as 42 cm of water during a single summer (Clarke et. al. 2008). This amount is comparable to annual rainfall and in such areas fog drip may significantly mitigate groundwater consumption.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references within text.</p>


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

<p><em>E. globulus</em> stands displace native plant communities. Plant communities can be severely altered in circumstances where blue gum was planted at high density and growing conditions are favorable. Plant communities in other places can be significantly less impacted.<br /><br />Conditions are most favorable for blue gum growth and regeneration along the coast in northern and central California (Ritter and Yost 2012). Capacity for regeneration is based on environmental conditions; areas with reliable year-round moisture, such as along riparian corridors and along the coast from Monterey Bay north where summer fog drip provides seedlings with some moisture, are most likely to support naturally reproducing eucalyptus populations (Yost 2014). Juvenile foliage is seldom browsed by livestock or wildlife, aiding seedling survival (Skolmen and Ledig 1990).</p>
<p><br /><em>E. globulus</em> stands can form near monocultures in areas where they were planted at high densities (Griffiths &amp; Villablanca 2013). On Angel Island in San Francisco Bay, native trees were only found in eucalyptus plantings where the blue gums had been widely spaced, and these natives were &ldquo;not vigorous&rdquo; (McBride, Sugihara, and Amme 1988).</p>
<p><br />Reports of plant diversity within <em>E. globulus</em> stands vary, reflecting the range of conditions, including original planting density, suitability of the microclimate for eucalyptus growth and regeneration, composition of native seed bank, size of the stand and diversity of the surrounding vegetation. Some studies report depauperate plant communities (Esser 1993, DiTomaso &amp; Healy 2007, Bean &amp; Russo 2014) limited by shading and a thick litter layer, while other studies report some native plant species being supported in the understory (LSA Associates 2009, San Francisco Recreation and Park Department 2006).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references within text.</p>


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

<p><strong>E. globulus</strong> alters habitat for birds. Effects on terrestrial vertebrates and arthropods were reviewed but are not included in this assessment. Some blue gum stands provide habitat for monarch butterflies.</p>
<p><br /><strong>Impacts to birds</strong><br />Many of the breeding bird species that are most representative of oak and riparian habitats make little or no use of eucalyptus. Decay-resistant wood offers limited nesting opportunities for woodpeckers and birds that excavate their own holes. Birds that glean insects from foliage are also present at notably lower densities than in native oak woodlands (Suddjian 2004, Williams 2002).</p>
<p><br />Eucalyptus stands do provide nesting habitat for large roosting birds such as herons, egrets, and cormorants and raptors such as red-shouldered and red-tailed hawks (Suddjian 2004, LSA Associates 2009). They also provide a nectar source for bees and hummingbirds (Rejmanek &amp; Richardson 2011).</p>
<p><br />Depending on the abundance and health of grassland and oak woodland near blue gum stands, these stands may be considered to be damaging or complementing native habitat.</p>
<p><br /><strong>Monarch butterfly habitat</strong><br />Some eucalyptus stands provide overwintering sites for Monarch butterflies, along with native trees such as coast redwoods, Monterey pine and Monterey cypress (Griffiths &amp; Villablanca 2013).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references within text.</p>


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

<p>No congeners native to the United States; no hybridization between non-native Eucalyptus spp. and native plant species in California.</p>


Sources of information:

<p>Baldwin et al. 2012,&nbsp;Calflora 2014</p>


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe role of disturbance:

<p><em>E. globulus</em> was introduced to California in 1856 (Esser 1993) and is now naturalized in parts of California (Esser 1993, Ritter &amp; Yost 2009). Purposeful cultivation was the primary mode of establishment (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990, Esser 1993, HEAR 2007, LSA Associates 2009, Baldwin et al. 2012). E. globulus was planted on about 40,000 acres in California, extending from Humboldt County in the north to San Diego County in the south, with best growth in the coastal fog belt (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990).</p>
<p>New populations independent of planting are rarely seen in California. Spread is typically limited to expansion along the periphery of an existing population. While eucalyptus bears abundant seed, it does not generally find appropriate conditions for germination (Tyrell 1999). Seeds germinate best on bare mineral soil so germination within dense forests is difficult (Bean &amp; Russo 2014).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references within text.</p>


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe rate of spread:

<p>Though not all <em>E. globulus</em> stands are expanding, those in moist coastal habitats often expand at a significant rate. New populations are rare; spread is almost entirely along the periphery of existing stands.</p>
<p>Most naturalized stands of <em>E. globulus</em> are present along the coast in northern and central California (Ritter &amp; Yost 2012). Aerial photographs show a 50-400% increase in eucalyptus stand size between 1930 and 2001 across six sites in coastal California (Van Dyke 2004). On Angel Island, blue gum &ldquo;invaded areas adjacent to all sites where it was originally planted,&rdquo; resulting in an expansion from 24 acres to 86 acres, a 360% expansion, over a century (McBride, Sugihara and Amme 1988). Potential spread rate has been estimated at 10-20 feet per year under favorable conditions (Bean &amp; Russo 2014).</p>
<p><br />Some studies show that this is not the case with all populations. An assessment of changes in cover over a 58-year period at three regional parks in the East Bay hills indicates a decline in eucalyptus cover at all three locations (Russell and McBride 2003), though it is unclear how management activities may have affected stand size in these locations.</p>
<p><br />California State Parks personnel submitted the following recent reports:</p>
<ul>
<li>Tim Hyland (2014) in the Santa Cruz District reports that nine coastal units have E. globulus patches that have moved into riparian, coastal prairie, and coastal scrub habitats. Two units have E. globulus patches that exist in forested settings and show no signs of reproduction.</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li>Vince Cincero (2014) in the San Luis Obispo Coast District referred to a 1990 report compiled by Susan Bicknell of Humboldt State University on eucalyptus at Montana de Oro State Park in Los Osos. The report describes an original plantation established in 1907/08, with the earliest aerial photos from 1949 showing 7 species of eucalyptus covering 119 acres. Forty years later in 1989, the grove had expanded 52% to 181 acres, of which E. globulus covered 108 acres (the original portion comprising blue gum is unknown).</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li>Suzanne Goode (2014) in the Angeles District reports that: at Mulholland Highway and Pacific Coast Highway, E. globulus is spreading upslope; at Nicholas Flats Natural Preserve, E. globulus (and possibly other eucalyptus species) are spreading from an original plantation homestead;and at the Will Rogers State Historic Park E. globulus continues to spread from plantings into the hillsides.</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li>Michelle Forys (2014) in the North Coast Redwoods District reports that the few planted clumps of E. globulus located on district property are actively controlled to stop spread beyond the historical planted area. Additionally, she has observed a planting on the west side of along Highway 101 between Arcata and Eureka spreading across to the east side of the highway.</li>
</ul>


Sources of information:

<p>See references within text.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

<p>Some stands of E. globulus along the California coast are regenerating and expanding, while others are stable or even shrinking. CalWeedMapper (2014) shows that E. globulus is thought (by local land managers) to be spreading in about 47% of the USGS quadrangles where it is present in the state, and stable in the rest (decreases are not documented in the system, other than through active management).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references within text.</p>


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

<p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">1. Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less: No</span></strong></p>
<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">Most sources estimate trees usually begin to produce seeds at 4 to 5 years and yield heavy seed crops in most locations at 3- to 5-year intervals (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990, HEAR 2007). Metcalf (1924) stated that flowers and fruits could be found on sprouts only two or three years old, although not in great quantities.</span></p>
<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;">2. Dense infestations produce &gt;1,000 viable seed per square meter: Unknown<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></strong></p>
<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt;"><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;"> Sources indicate prolific seed production, but viable seeds produced per square meter are not given. There are 18 to 320 seeds per gram (500 to 9,100/oz) of seeds and chaff, or about 460 clean seeds per gram (13,000/oz) (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990). Germination rates are typically very low: a 1% germination rate is good, given the more usual 0.1% germination success rate (Bean &amp; Russo 2014). This does not indicate the amount of viable seed, as germination can be limited by other factors as well (e.g., allelopathy, thick litter layer, moisture, etc).<br /> <strong>3. Populations of this species produce seeds every year: unknown, assume no</strong><br /> Skolmen &amp; Ledig (1990) indicate that E. globulus yields heavy seed crops in most locations at 3- to 5-year intervals. This does not indicate whether seed is produced every year and only heavily at several year intervals, or whether seed is produced only at 3- to 5-year intervals.<br /> <strong>4. Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually: Yes<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><br /> </strong>Blue gum eucalyptus in California flowers from November to April during the wet season. The fruit (a distinctive top-shaped woody capsule 15 mm long and 2 cm in diameter) ripens in October to March, about 11 months after flowering (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990).<br /> <strong>5. Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years: No<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><br /> </strong>Germination occurs readily (within 26 days) after seeds are released if conditions are suitable (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990). When stored, seeds can remain viable for several years, but in field conditions, viable seed banks are not expected to be maintained beyond a year (Rejmanek &amp; Richardson 2011).<br /> <strong>6. Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination: No<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><br /> </strong>When the cap covering the reproductive organs (the operculum) is shed, the anthers have mature pollen, but the stigma does not become receptive until some days later. This sequence impedes self-pollination of an individual flower. Flowers are pollinated by insects, hummingbirds, and other pollen and nectar feeders. There is no evidence that wind plays anything but a minor role in eucalypt pollination. The flowers of eucalypts are not highly specialized for insect pollination (HEAR 2007).<br /> <strong>7. Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes:&nbsp;No<br /> </strong>Blue gum eucalyptus can sprout from the bole, from stumps of all sizes and ages, from the lignotuber, and from the roots. The lignotuber can live for many years in the soil after stems die back (Esser 1993). This contributes to re-growth, but not spatial spread of the plant. One professional land manager reports that stand spread may arise from root sprouts in addition to seed sprouts (Heath 2014), but this has not been confirmed.<br /> <strong>8. Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere: No<br /> </strong>No evidence found.<br /> <strong>9. Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned: Yes<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><br /> </strong>Blue gum coppices readily from stumps of all sizes and ages when the tree is damaged. If the tree is cut down, lignotubers become active and each bud produce a shoot bearing foliage. Such shoots are commonly known as "sucker growth" or coppice shoots, and a large number are usually formed. E. globulus resprouts after being burned (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990, Bean &amp; Russo 2014).</span></p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references in text.</p>


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">Given the large seed size, there is very little potential for people to accidentally start new populations through unintentional seed &ldquo;hitchhiking&rdquo;.</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 8.5pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><br />Though some landowners may still plant <em>E. globulus</em> for windbreaks or ornamentals on a limited scale, the conclusion of the California Horticultural Invasives Prevention (Cal-HIP) partnership and the PlantRight campaign is that <em>E. globulus</em> is effectively no longer in the trade. Annual surveys of retail nurseries around California indicate that few (&lt;1%) nurseries now sell <em>E. globulus</em> and it has been moved to their &ldquo;retired&rdquo; list of plants because it is so rarely found for sale (PlantRight 2014).<br /></span></p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references in text.</p>


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

<p>In general, E. globulus seed is not easily dispersed over large distances (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990, HEAR 2007, Rejmanek &amp; Richardson 2011). E. globulus seeds are distributed by wind and gravity; calculated dispersal distance from a 40 m (131 ft) height, with winds of 10 km/hr (6 mi/hr), was only 20 m (66 ft) (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990). Some seed may be moved by such agents as flood, erosion and birds, but usually seed is dropped within 100 feet of the parent tree (Bean &amp; Russo 2014).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references in text.</p>


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

<p><em>E. globulus</em> has wide climatic adaptability, with the most successful introductions worldwide in locations with mild, temperate climates, or at somewhat higher elevations in tropical areas (<em>E. globulus</em> does not tolerate frequent freezes). Although it generally grows well in countries with a Mediterranean or cold season maximum rainfall, it grows well also in summer rainfall climates of Ethiopia and Argentina (Skolmen &amp; Ledig 1990). In California, E. globulus populations already exist in the regions suitable to the species&rsquo; naturalization (CalWeedMapper 2014).</p>


Sources of information:

<p>See references in text.</p>


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Observational

Invades five major habitat types: scrub and chaparral; grasslands; bog and marsh; riparian; and forest. These are ecotypes where blue gum stands are found in California, though that presence is typically due to intentional planting. Blue gum is unlikely to actively spread into dense forest vegetation. See Worksheet C.


Sources of information:

Observational


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

See Worksheet C. 5-20% is the highest portion of occurrences invaded in any of the invaded ecotypes.


Sources of information:

Observational


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less No
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Unknown
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Unknown
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Yes
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 2
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: C?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparralC, 5% - 20%
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swampC, 5% - 20%
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forestD, < 5%
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forestC, 5% - 20%
North Coast coniferous forestC, 5% - 20%
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest