Common names: fennel; sweet fennel; sweet anise
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) is an erect perennial herb (family Apiaceae). Although the plant is very common throughout the state, dense local populations have been reported from Santa Cruz Island, in fields around the San Francisco Bay region, Palos Verdes Peninsula (Los Angeles County), and Camp Pendleton (San Diego County). It can drastically alter the composition and structure of many plant communities, including grasslands, coastal scrub, riparian, and wetland communities. It is still unclear whether culinary varieties of fennel are invasive.Cal-IPC Rating: Moderate
Plant Assessment Form - Information gathered by Cal-IPC on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in California. Does not include management information.
Weed RIC Management Notes
- Management Notes - Information on management techniques and effectiveness from the University of California Cooperative Extension’s Weed Research & Information Center.
Cal-IPC Newsletter Articles
- East Bay volunteers head to the hills and the shores. Schwartz, Susan. Vol 16, Issue 4
- Don’t sell a pest: A new partnership to prevent plant invasions through horticulture. Connick, Sarah; Gerel, Mike. Vol 13, Issue 2
- An island called Santa Cruz: Removing invasives on the Channel Islands. Owen, Ken. Vol 12, Issue 2
- Teaching weeds: California university invasive plant programs. Cole, Kristie; Molinari, Nicole. Vol 12, Issue 2
- Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. Zavaleta, Erika S.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Mooney, Harold A.. Vol 10, Issue 3
- Education: Wildland weed tours and talks. Kelly, Mike. Vol 08, Issue 1
- Roundup of Arundo projects reveals commitment, strategic weakness. Kelly, Mike. Vol 07, Issue 2
- Richmond weed abatement ordinance. . Vol 07, Issue 1
- Results of the CalEPPC questionnaire at Symposium ’98 in Ontario. DiTomaso, Joe. Vol 06, Issue 4
- Legendary stewardship award. Goode, Suzanne. Vol 06, Issue 2
- Highways as corridors of dispersal. Madison, John. Vol 04, Issue 1
- Exotic pest plants of greatest ecological concern in California September 1994. Cal-IPC. Vol 02, Issue 4
Cal-IPC Symposium Presentations
Presentations are linked where available. Where a presentation is not available, find more information by reading the abstract in the Cal-IPC Symposia Archive.
- Mapping weeds and rare plants to inform management and conservation in the Zaca and Jesusita fires. Calloway, Stephanie; Schneider, Heather; Knapp, Denise (2018)
- Native plant recovery in seeded and non-seeded plots following exotic fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on east Santa Cruz Island – ten years post treatment. Cowan, Clark (2018)
- Modeling the control of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on San Clemente Island. Havstad, Emma (2017)
- Desire, disappointment, surprises, and food webs: melding conservation and ecological perspectives to better understand animal-invasive plant interactions. Klinger, Rob (2010)
- Successful tactics for controlling invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. Power, Paula; Roberts, James R.; Clark Cowan, Rudolph; Rocky, (2010)
- Assessing the effects of Foeniculum vulgare on seedling germination, soil legacy effects and restoration strategies. Liu, Heather (2009)
- Evaluating the seed bank of a disturbed site to determine potential ecological restoration strategies. Olesen, Cory; Doran, Daniel; D_Antonio, Carla (2009)
- Using airborne remote sensing to map sweet fennel on Santa Cruz Island (5.2). Dahlin, Kyla; Asner, Greg; Field, Chris; Shaw, Rebecca (2008)
- Thread-leaved brodiaea weed control for habitat restoration: Implementation, maintenance and monitoring. Innecken, Shirley; MacAller, Robert; Dodero, Mark (2007)
- The cost and effectiveness of small-scale fennel control methods. Gwinn, Abigail (2006)
- The fennel battle on MCB Camp Pendleton: Partnerships and techniques in combating the invasion. Easley, Todd; Bieber, Deborah; Bell, Carl; Tomsovic, Pete (2005)
- Ecohelpers: Education and ecological restoration in Southern California. Dickerson, Eli; Brigham, Christy; Gillooly, Jack (2004)
- Finding effective herbicide treatments for fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Bell, Carl E.; Roesch, Kari; Smead, Harry (2004)
- Partnering to prevent invasions of plants of horticultural origin. Connick, Sarah; Gerel, Mike (2004)
- The plant community effects of a burn and two herbicide sprays on a fennel infested grassland in the Central Valley of Santa Cruz Island, California. Erskine, Jennifer (2000)
- The presence of fennel affects the distribution of lizards on Santa Cruz Island. Gibson, Jennifer K. (2000)
- Mechanical control methods: beyond weed bashing. Archbald, G. (1998)
- Use of fire to control French broom. Boyd, David (1995)
- Modeling the expansion and control of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on the Channel Islands. Brenton, Robert K.; Klinger, Rob (1994)
Other Foeniculum vulgare Information
- CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
- Calflora - See the distribution of this species on Calflora's map of California.
- CalWeedMapper - Distribution information with ability to determine regional priorities.
- Jepson Online Interchange for California Flora - Information on taxonomy, biology, and distribution from UC Berkeley's Jepson Herbarium.
- USDA PLANTS Database - Federal database with information on identification and distribution, and links to websites in individual states.
- Bugwood - National database from the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia.