Plant Assessment Form

Parentucellia viscosa

Synonyms: Bartsia viscosa, Bellardia viscosa

Common Names: yellow glandweed; sticky Parentucellia; broadleaved glandweed

Evaluated on: 12/29/04 and 5/19/05

List committee review date: 15/08/2005

Re-evaluation date:


Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
Toni Corelli
CNPS Santa Clara Valley Chapter
P.O. Box 773 Half Moon Bay, CA 94019
(650) 726-0689

List committee members

Cynthia Roye
Jake Sigg
Joe DiTomaso
Peter Warner

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U. Unknown Reviewed Scientific Publication
Four-part score UCUD Total Score
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels U. Unknown
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Total Points
11 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Observational
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Nothing reported in the literature.

Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

In Humboldt Bay, effects on native species were fairly minor and not much different than that expected by normal successional processes on the dunes. P. viscosa occurred at fairly low cover values (1, 2).

Sources of information:

1. Pickart A., and K. S. Wear. 1999a. Parentucellia viscosa invasion in dune wetlands of northern California. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
2. Pickart A., and K. S. Wear. 1999b. The ecology of Parentucellia viscosa invasion in dune wetlands. Proceedings California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium. 5:57-70.

Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? U
Identify type of impact or alteration:

No information, but if effects on plant community are not significant, then presumably there won't be a large number of impacts extending to higher trophic levels.

Sources of information:

Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

none No native Parentucellia species.

Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA

Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Parasite of early successional species on dunes (1). Mostly in disturbed sites but persists in grasslands that have not been recently grazed (2). Scored as B because needs open areas but does not require anthropogenic disturbance.`

Sources of information:

1. Pickart and Wear 1999a, b
2. Warner, Peter. California State Parks, Mendocino. Pers. Comm. E-mail 5/18/05

Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

In Humboldt Bay, P. viscosa increased 200% between 1989-1999, but this included a decline between 1995-99. As rapid succession progresses and dunes migrate, Parentucellia is likely to decline (1). Slowly increasing, both coastally and inland (2).

Sources of information:

1. Pickart and Wear 1999a, b
2. Warner, Peter. California State Parks, Mendocino. Pers. Comm. E-mail 5/18/05

Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Observational
Describe trend:

Slowly increasing range, both coastally and inland.

Sources of information:

1. Warner, Peter. California State Parks, Mendocino. Pers. Comm. E-mail 5/18/05

Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Hemiparasitic annual, but can germinate and grow without hosts. Can colonize a wide range of hosts (1, 2, 3). Self-compatible but capable of outbreeding (1, 2). Seeds remain viable for at least a year (1). Preferred host is Lotus purshianus (1). Can parasitize members of its own species (2). Fecundity is exponentially a function of plant size, and an average plant can have 12,000 seeds (1). Not sure of some scores on worksheet.

Sources of information:

1. Pickart and Wear 1999,a b
2. Atsatt, P. R., and D. R. Strong. 1970. The population biology of annual grassland hemiparasites. I. The host environment. Evolution. 24:278-291
3. Pate, J.S., and T. L. Bell. 2000. Host associations of the introduced annual root hemiparasite Parentucellia viscosa in agricultural and bushland settings in western Australia. Annals of Botany. 85:203-213

Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Sticky seed heads stick to clothing.

Sources of information:

Peter Warner, California State Parks, pers. Obs.

Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Wind-dispersed. Sticky seed heads attach to fur.

Sources of information:

Pickart and Wear 1999 a, b
Peter Warner, California State Parks, pers. Obs

Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

Native to Europe. P. viscosa is present in coastal California, Oregon, and Washington (1, 2). Reported from coastal grasslands near Corvallis, OR (2). Also present in Australia (3). Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas (4). Seems to invade the same habitats elsewhere as it does in California.

Sources of information:

1. Pickart and Wear 1999a, b
2. Atsatt and Strong 1970
3. Pate and Bell 2000
4. DiTomaso J., Healy E.H. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States. p. 622.

Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? B Other Published Material

P. viscosa invades dune hollows on north spit of Humboldt Bay. Also found in ditches in the Lake Earl Dunes of Del Norte County and Ten Mile Dunes in Mendocino County, but not noticeably invasive in those areas (1). P. viscosa is found in coastal dune wetlands, moist grasslands, roadsides and other disturbed areas, and was recently found in pastures in the central Sierra Nevada foothills (2).
Parentucellia viscosa was only noticed this year at a controlled burn site at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. We know it wasn't there in 2001. It has also been found at 3 other locations in San Mateo County: along Sand Hill Road, west of Hwy. 280; on the SF Peninsula Watershed at the headwaters of the San Mateo Creek; and in Half Moon Bay west of Hwy. 1 in. These are all 2005 locations. There are thousands of plants at all of these locations, (extimated over 20,000 at each location). The plants seem to like vernally moist areas and may be fire followers since 2 of these locations (Jasper Ridge and San Hill Road populations) seemed to have come in after a fire. At these 4 locations in San Mateo County P. viscosa becomes the dominant plant after becoming established.

Sources of information:

1. Pickart and Wear 1999a, b
2. DiTomaso and Healy. in prep.
3. Toni Corelli, Jasper Ridge botanist

Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Other Published Material
Describe distribution:


Sources of information:

Pickart and Wear 1999a, b

Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Unknown
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Yes
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 5
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
DunescoastalD, < 5%
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieC, 5% - 20%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest