Paraserianthes lopantha_Kurt Stuber Wikimedia
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Paraserianthes lophantha Risk Assessment

Common names: plume acacia

Paraserianthes lophantha -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
January 28, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
Not Recorded
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
California, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in 12 California counties.
Reference(s): 
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Invasive in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa where it replaces native vegetation.
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Invasive in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which is similar to California. Invades forest margins, riverbanks, and moist slopes of South African fynbos.
Reference(s): 
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Albizia lebbeck (synonym to Paraserianthes) is invasive in southern Africa, which is similar to California. It is also invasive in more tropical areas such as Florida, Puerto Rico, and the Bahamas. Other species of Albizia are listed in Randall 2012 but I did not compare all of them.
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Native to Western Australia and Indonesia. Western Australia is similar to California but Indonesia is not. South Africa is similar to California but only a small portion of New Zealand is (based on Cal-IPC's climate comparison map). There is no GBIF map under this name or synonym Albizia lophantha so I am basing comparisons on text descriptions. It seems to be a draw so I'm answering no.
Reference(s): 
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Forms stands that shade out native species and impede overstory regeneration. Replaces native species in South Africa, where it forms dense stands along riverbanks.
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very Low
Answer / Justification: 
No information so defaulting to no.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
South Africa invasive plants website says it is poisonous but gives no details. (Seeds also emit a nauseating odor when crushed.)
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Forms dense stands 4-6m tall. Fast growing, up to 2m per year. Answering yes based on height and its ability to form dense stands.
Reference(s): 
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed. No mention of vegetative reproduction. Does not coppice after fire.
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Does not seem likely given that it's a shrub or tree.
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Very Low
Answer / Justification: 
No information
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Very Low
Answer / Justification: 
No information
Reference(s): 
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Answer / Justification: 
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Flowers May - July in California. This is borderline for producing seeds for 3 months so I am answering as no.
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds dispersed by birds and ants. Bird dispersal has the capability to be long distance.
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
In New Zealand, water movement reported to spread seeds. http://www.hear.org/pier/species/paraserianthes_lophantha.htm
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
In New Zealand, contaminated soil and gravel reported to spread seeds.
Evaluation Notes

Reviewed by Alison Forrestel, National Park Service.

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
16
Number of questions answered: 
17
Screener Confidence (%): 
80.0
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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