Plant Assessment Form

Saponaria officinalis

Synonyms: Lychnis saponaria Jessen

Common Names: bouncing-bet; bouncing betty; soapwort; goodbye summer

Evaluated on: 3/15/04

List committee review date: 19/03/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Ann Howald
Garcia and Associates
210 Chestnut Avenue, Sonoma, CA 95476
707/939-0775
annhowald@vom.com
Peter J. Warner, Associate State Park Resource Ecologist
California Department of Parks & Recreation
P. O. Box 603, Little River, CA 95456-0603
707/937-9172; 707/937-2278
pwarner@mcn.org

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
Joe DiTomaso
John Randall
Cynthia Roye
Jake Sigg
Alison Stanton
Peter Warner

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Other Published Material
Impact?
Four-part score UBCD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels C. Minor Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
14 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal B. Occasional Observational
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
C. Limited Observational
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Other Published Material
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

: Possible water quality effects but no data at present. Plants contain large amounts of saponins, are noted as toxic in literature, grow near water. Currently no evidence that these compounds enter or effect streams where Saponaria is found.


Sources of information:

Google has 9,960 hits for Saponaria. Many of these sources discuss toxicity.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Eliminates native vegetation from streamside habitat. Forms dense stands reaching 75-100% cover; 26 acres mapped along 10-mile stretch of N. Fork Feather River in 2003.


Sources of information:

Garcia and Associates, Feb 2004. Rock Creek-Cresta Noxious Weed Control Monitoring Program. Unpublished report for PG&E.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Low palatability to grazers and browsers. Roots are toxic to fish (saponin content is highest in roots), so possible reduction in food resources for riparian or lacustrine vertebrates and invertebrates, however, no data at present. Saponins from this plant are used, presumably in small quantities, in Germany to give beer a foamier head Species constituents include triterpene, saponin, resin, gum, mucilage, and phytosterols. Little evidence of toxicity to livestock or wild animals. Toxic to fish, so could be toxic to other aquatic invertebrates. Growth displaces native plant forage.


Sources of information:

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service @ http://plants.usda.gov/classification/output_report.cgi?SAOF4
Tiscali Gardening @ http://gardening.worldwide.co.za/0556.htm
Plants Database @ http://plantsdatabase.com/go/171/
Grey Wing's Herbal @ http://www.geocities.com/Athens/4177/sopwrt.html


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D

None.


Sources of information:

Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Natural disturbance seems most important. Plants invade streamside (shoreline) habitat, gravel bars, other areas affected by high water events.


Sources of information:

: Personal observations. Reports from CalFlora database of locations for plants along streams and rivers.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Rapid, potentially.


Sources of information:

Personal observations.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Likely increasing, but unknown.


Sources of information:

Personal observations, CalFlora database records.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

: Produces many seeds. Spreads vegetatively by rhizomes and broken stem fragments.


Sources of information:

:Hickman, JC (editor). 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California (Third printing). University of California Press, Berkeley. P. 487.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service @ http://plants.usda.gov/classification/output_report.cgi?SAOF4
Howald, A. 2004. Personal observations.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Horticultural and medicinal uses.


Sources of information:

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service @ http://plants.usda.gov/classification/output_report.cgi?SAOF4


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? B Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds, stem fragments.


Sources of information:

Howald, A. 2004. Personal observations.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

Naturalized widely in North America, including grasslands and dunes along the Great Lakes. Also reported from the Queensland sandy plain area in Australia.


Sources of information:

Bailey, L. H. Manual of cultivated plants.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service @ http://plants.usda.gov/classification/output_report.cgi?SAOF4


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? C Observational

: Riparian habitat; date of introduction unknown but found in the wild in CA by 1900.


Sources of information:

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service @ http://plants.usda.gov/classification/output_report.cgi?SAOF4
Howald, A. 2004. Personal observations.
CalFlora database.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

Generally unknown; reported from Mono and Plumas Counties in riparian habitats.


Sources of information:

Howald, A. 2004. Personal observations.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere Yes
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 8
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forestD, < 5%
riparian woodlandC, 5% - 20%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): C
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Great Basin Province
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Mojave Desert