Plant Assessment Form

Linaria vulgaris

Common Names: yellow toadflax; butter and eggs; common linaria; common toadflax; wild snapdragon

Evaluated on: 1/3/07

List committee review date: 15/02/2007

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph M. DiTomaso
Univ. California, Davis
Dept. of Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Peter Warner
Joanna Clines

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UABU Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community A. Severe Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity U. Unknown
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
12 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

No information known on its impact on abiotic processes.


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
A Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Aggressive perennial with deep root system. Highly competitive for soil moisture with winter annuals and shallow-rooted perennials. Large colonies can displace native vegetation.
Can outcompete other plants, including natives. More easily establish in areas where competition is reduced.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
el.erdc.usace.army.mil/pmis/plants/html/linaria1.html
www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/linspp/


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Reported to be mildly toxic to livestock as it contains a glucoside. Only harmful when eaten in large quanities. Livestock avoid grazing toadflaxes. No information on effects on native wildlife.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
el.erdc.usace.army.mil/pmis/plants/html/linaria1.html
Erksine-Ogden,J.A. and M.J. Renz. 2005. Yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) New Mexico State University. Fact Sheet. 5 pp.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? U

One native Linaria in California (L. canadensis). No information on potential for hybridization.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Often invades disturbed areas but can invade relatively undisturbed prairies and riparian habitats. Overgrazing encourages survival.
Favored by disturbance, but can also spread into high mountain valleys and parks.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
Beck, K.G. Biology and management of the toadflaxes. 2006. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/natres/03114.html
www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/linspp/


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Would likely be expanding in the northern part of the state with no control efforts.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Efforts by CDFA have kept populations from expanding in state.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Perennial. Extensive system of vertical and creeping lateral roots produce new shoots. Flowers May-September. Self incompatible. Average seed production highly variable, from 1500 to 30,000 seeds per plant. Seeds can remain viable for at least 8 years.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/pnw/pnw135
www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/natres/03114.html
Erksine-Ogden,J.A. and M.J. Renz. 2005. Yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) New Mexico State University. Fact Sheet. 5 pp.
www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/linspp/
Saner, M.A. et al. 1995. The biology of Canadian weeds. 105. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Can. J. Plant Sci 75:525-537.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Introduced as an ornamental. Escapes from cultivation. Still occasionally sold as ornamental, but not as common today. Sold under the common name "butter and eggs" or "wild snapdragon."Root fragments can spread with farm equipment.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/natres/03114.html
Erksine-Ogden,J.A. and M.J. Renz. 2005. Yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) New Mexico State University. Fact Sheet. 5 pp.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Most seed falls by the parent plant but some disperses with water and soil movement. Seeds can float on water for extended periods.Over 80% of the seeds fall within 18 inches of the parent plant and very few seed fall more than 5 feet away.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/linspp/


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to the Mediterranean. Brought to Delaware from Wales in mid-1800s. State-listed noxious weed in Colorada, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming. Many areas invaded, but similar habitats as those invaded in California.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
Mitich, L.W. 1993. Yellow toadflax. Weed Technology 7:791-793


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Introduced to North America in the 1600s. Found in every state except Hawaii. Invades disturbed sites, forest clearings, roadsides, prairies, riparian habitats. Occurs in much of California except the Great Basin and Desert regions, to 1000m. (1, 5)
However, listed as a problem plant on the Mojave Weed Management Area website. (2)
Found in fields, overgrazed pastures, rangeland, waste areas, and along roadsides (3)
Also found on forest edges (4)


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.
2. Mojave Weed Management Area website. http://www.mojavewma.org/weeds.php Accessed 1/3/07.
3. Butler, M.D., and L. C. Burrill. Yellow toadflax and dalmatian toadflax. 1994. Oregon State University. extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/pnw/pnw135
4. el.erdc.usace.army.mil/pmis/plants/html/linaria1.html
5. Erksine-Ogden,J.A. and M.J. Renz. 2005. Yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) New Mexico State University. Fact Sheet. 5 pp.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Not widely distributed in California. Much more common in other western states.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 8
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grasslandD, < 5%
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forestD, < 5%
upper montane coniferous forestD, < 5%
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East