Plant Assessment Form

Ehrharta longiflora

Synonyms: annual veldtgrass

Common Names: long-flowered veldtgrass

Evaluated on: 8/17/04

List committee review date: 27/08/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Joseph M. DiTomaso/Extension Specialist
University of California, Davis
Weed Science Program, Robbins Hall, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
ditomaso@vegmail.ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Alison Stanton
Cynthia Roye
Jake Sigg
Joe DiTomaso
Peter Warner
John Randall

General Comments

The amount of information on the invasiveness and biology of this species is very limited.

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U
Impact?
Four-part score UBDC Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels D. Negligible Observational
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity C. Minor/Low Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
11 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Observational
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal D. Does not occur Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded B. Invades 1 or 2 ecological types Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
C. Limited Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Not widely distributed enough to know if it has any impact. Not really a widely dispersed weed anywhere in the world.


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

In Torrey Pines State Preserve, San Diego, it is very thick on a trail and has now spread throughout the trail. Reported to have covered all but two of the sea dahlias that used to grow in great profusion under the Torrey pines. The Miner's lettuce is sparse due to the plant.


Sources of information:

Brey, C. 1996. What? Another Ehrharta? Oh no!! CalEPPC News. Spring, pgs. 4-5.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? D Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Does not appear to have any impact on tropic levels.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.D. - observational


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? C Other Published Material

There are no native Ehrharta species in California or the western US.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J.C. ed. 1993. The Jepson Manual. Higher Plants of California. UC Press, Berkeley


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Considered a ruderal plant even in its native range. Probably requires disturbance to some degree, but was observed to move into undisturbed sites in Torrey Pines State Preserve.


Sources of information:

Casasayas, I.F.T. and I.D.B.A. Farras. 1988. Ehrharta longiflora new record. A South African grass new for the Iberian Peninusla. Candollea 43(1):139-142.; Brey, C. 1996. What? Another Ehrharta? Oh no!! CalEPPC News. Spring, pgs. 4-5.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

Has spread rapidly at the Torrey Pines State Preserve.


Sources of information:

Brey, C. 1996. What? Another Ehrharta? Oh no!! CalEPPC News. Spring, pgs. 4-5.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Other Published Material
Describe trend:

It appears to have the potential to spread rapidly in coastal dune habitat, but has not moved to many other sites outside of the San Diego region.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E.A. Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Univ. Calif., Ag. Natural Res. (in press); DiTomaso, J.M.- observational


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Observational
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

No data on the biology of the plants, including the reproductive biology.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. - observational


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

It may have been introduced through the nursery industry, but the grass is not sold in the US as an ornamental.


Sources of information:

Casasayas, I.F.T. and I.D.B.A. Farras. 1988. Ehrharta longiflora new record. A South African grass new for the Iberian Peninusla. Candollea 43(1):139-142.; DiTomaso, J.M. - observational


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

No long distance dispersal by natural means. Many disperses by insects the awns may attach to some animals.


Sources of information:

Casasayas, I.F.T. and I.D.B.A. Farras. 1988. Ehrharta longiflora new record. A South African grass new for the Iberian Peninusla. Candollea 43(1):139-142; DiTomaso, J.M.- observational


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

First reported on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe in 1988. Also reported rare in England and a few other locations in Europe, including Czechoslavakia. Reported to occur in riparian areas in its native range and in grasslands. Has not infested such areas in California, but may have the potential to do so.


Sources of information:

Casasayas, I.F.T. and I.D.B.A. Farras. 1988. Ehrharta longiflora new record. A South African grass new for the Iberian Peninusla. Candollea 43(1):139-142.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? C Other Published Material

Very recently introduced into California and the US. Not included in the Jepson Manual of 1993.Long-flowered veldtgrass inhabits some coastal areas of the South Coast, particularly near San Diego. Native to South Africa.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E.A. Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Univ. Calif., Ag. Natural Res. (in press); Casasayas, I.F.T. and I.D.B.A. Farras. 1988. Ehrharta longiflora new record. A South African grass new for the Iberian Peninusla. Candollea 43(1):139-142.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Very uncommon and only in a couple of locations


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. - observational


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Unknown
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 2
Total unknowns: 3
Total score: U?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubD, < 5%
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): C
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Southwest