Plant Assessment Form

Cortaderia jubata

Synonyms: Cortaderia atacamensis

Common Names: jubatagrass; pampasgrass; pink pampasgrass

Evaluated on: 5/14/04

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Alison E Stanton
BMP Ecosciences
2163 Cornelian Drive South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150
530 573 1177
alisonestanton@sbcglobal.net

List commitee members

Alison E Stanton
Joe DiTomaso
Cynthia Roye
Joanna Clines
Doug Johnson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? High
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score BAAD Total Score
A
1.2 ?Impact on plant community A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels A. Severe Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Observational
Invasiveness?
Total Points
17 Total Score A
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal A. High Observational
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Reviewed Scientific Publication
Distribution?
Total Score A
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

fire intensity, fire frequency These large plants produce significant amounts of biomass that is extremely flammable, increasing both the frequency and intensity of fire. The large size also significantly reduces light availability, especailly in mono-specific stands.


Sources of information:

1.Gadcil, R.L. A.L. Knowles, and J.A. Zabkiewicz. 1984. Pampas-A new forest weed problem. Proc. 37th New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. p187-190.
2.Gadcil, R.L., A.M. Sandberg, P.J. Allen, and S. S. Gallagher. 1990. Partial suppression of pamaps grass by other species at the seedling stage. Proceedings of an Internation al Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, July 1989. Ministry of Forestry FRI Bulletin 155.
3.Gadcil, R.L., P.G. Barton, P.J. Allen, and A.M. Sandberg. 1990. Growth of pampas grass (Cortaderia spp.) in New Zealand Pinus radiata forests. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 20(2):176-183.
4.Harradine, A.R. 1991. The impact of pampas grass as weeds in southern Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly 6:111-115.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Alters plant community conposition and structure. Develops mono-specific stands with >75% cover, eliminates lower layers, displaces native species, and creates a new layer in maritime chaparral and other scrub ecossystems. Cited as a direct threat to Gowen's cypress, Crystal Springs fountain thistle, and the Short-leaved Dudleya.


Sources of information:

1. Lambrinos, J. G. 2000. The impact of the invasive alien grass Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf on an endangered mediterranean-type shrubland in California. Diversity and Distributions. 6:217-231
2.Fuller, T.C. 1976. Its history as a weed. In B.D. Cowan, The menace of Pampas grass. Fremontia 4(2):14-16.
3. Rawling, J
4.USFWS


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? A Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Total alteration of native plant communities decreases forage and nesting sites for native animals, although rats, some snakes, and rabbits have been observed in dense infestations. Displacing native coastal prairie in Mission Blue Butterfly habitat


Sources of information:

1. Lambrinos, J. G. 2000. The impact of the invasive alien grass Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf on an endangered mediterranean-type shrubland in California. Diversity and Distributions. 6:217-231
2.USFWS


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

No native congeners


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Often found in distrubed areas, including roadsides, logged forests, and railroad tracks. Also colonize narturally occuring landslides Germination requires light, but seedlings occasionally establish in undisturbed areas.


Sources of information:

1. Drewitz, J.J., and J. M. DiTomaso. 2000. Seed biology and control of jubatagrass. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. 6:32
2. Tschohl, A. 2000. Jubatagrass vs. pampasgrass: a growth analysis and comparison of invasive potential. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. 6:32-33


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Increases rapidly after initial colonization Prolific seed production and light, wind-dispersed seeds facilitate rapid expansion. Apomictic reproduction enables a single individual to reproduce and colonize an area.


Sources of information:

1.Conner, H.E. 1965. Breeding systems in New Zealand grasses V. Naturalized species of Cortaderia. New Zealand Journal of Botany 3:17-23
2.Costas-Lippmann, M. 1976. Ecology and reproductive biology of the genus Cortaderia in California. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
3.Fuller, T.C. 1976. Its history as a weed. In B.D. Cowan, The menace of Pampas grass. Fremontia 4(2):14-16.
4. Harradine, A.R. 1991. The impact of pampas grass as weeds in southern Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly 6:111-115.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Observational
Describe trend:

Much of the coastal habitat appears to be saturated with infestations, but the total acreage in the state is probably still increasing Jubatagrass is restricted to coastal habitats


Sources of information:

1. Lambrinos, J. G. 2000. The impact of the invasive alien grass Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf on an endangered mediterranean-type shrubland in California. Diversity and Distributions. 6:217-231
2. Tschohl, A. 2000. Jubatagrass vs. pampasgrass: a growth analysis and comparison of invasive potential. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. 6:32-33


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Produces prolific seed, more than 100,00 seed on a single plume, although only about 30% are viable. Apomoctic reproductive strategy and gynodiecious breeding system. Plants re-sprout vigorously and root balls will re-root.


Sources of information:

1.Conner, H.E. 1965. Breeding systems in New Zealand grasses V. Naturalized species of Cortaderia. New Zealand Journal of Botany 3:17-23
2. Conner, H.E. 1972. Breeding systems in Cortaderia (Gramineae). Evolution 27:663-678.
3.Costas-Lippmann, M. 1976. Ecology and reproductive biology of the genus Cortaderia in California. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
4.1. Drewitz, J.J., and J. M. DiTomaso. 2000. Seed biology and control of jubatagrass. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. 6:32
5. Tschohl, A. 2000. Jubatagrass vs. pampasgrass: a growth analysis and comparison of invasive potential. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2000. 6:32-33


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? A Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Humans cut and carry around the plumes including placing plumes on cars and trucks. Thee plant has been mistakenly sold as pampas grass in the past and seed sales would increase the chances of misidentification.


Sources of information:

Stanton, personal observation


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seed can blow up to 20 miles in the wind. Seed stick to animal fur and get stuck on other vegetation


Sources of information:

1. Harradine, A.R. 1991. The impact of pampas grass as weeds in southern Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly 6:111-115.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

Australia, New Zealand,South Africa


Sources of information:

1.Fuller, T.C. 1976. Its history as a weed. In B.D. Cowan, The menace of Pampas grass. Fremontia 4(2):14-16.
2. Harradine, A.R. 1991. The impact of pampas grass as weeds in southern Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly 6:111-115.
2. Rawling


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Reviewed Scientific Publication

Restricted to coastal areas, primarily north of Santa Barbara. Co-occurs with pampasgrass in large urban areas and the North Coast. Tolerates serpentines soils. Appears to require fog, cannot utilize high light intensitites or survive high temepratures. Not frost tolerant.


Sources of information:

1. Lambrinos, J. G. 2005. A tale of two invaders: the dynamic history of pampas grass and jubata grass in California. Cal-IPC News. Fall/Winter 2004-05.
2. Lambrinos, J. G. 2000. The impact of the invasive alien grass Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf on an endangered mediterranean-type shrubland in California. Diversity and Distributions. 6:217-231
3. DiTomaso et al€..


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? B Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

Sources of information:

Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Yes
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 6
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubB, 20% - 50%
coastal scrubC, 5% - 20%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieC, 5% - 20%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seepD, < 5%
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestC, 5% - 20%
closed cone coniferous forestD, < 5%
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): B

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert