Source: California Invasive Plant Council

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Ilex aquifolium (English holly)

Ilex aquifolium
Ilex aquifolium
Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso

Ilex aquifolium (English holly) is an evergreen shrub or small tree (family Aquifoliaceae) found in the North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay region and central coast of California. English Holly is commonly sold as an ornamental plant used for landscaping and Christmas decorations. The plant has escaped cultivation and invaded moist forested areas throughout the west coast. English holly is slow-growing and may be controlled by removing plants before they start producing seed, 5-12 years after germination.

Cal-IPC Inventory rating: Moderate - Alert

Cal-IPC Resources on Ilex aquifolium

Cal-IPC News Articles

  • Connick, S. and M. Gerel (2005). Don't sell a pest: A new partnership to prevent plant invasions through horticulture. Cal-IPC News. 13: 4-5,14.

Cal-IPC Symposium Proceedings

  • Connick, S. and M. Gerel (2004). Partnering to prevent invasions of plants of horticultural origin. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Pickart, A. (2003). A decade of dune restoration at the Lanphere Dunes. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.

Other Resources on Ilex aquifolium

  • USDA PLANTS database - Federal database with information on identification and distribution, and links to websites in individual states.
  • Jepson Online Interchange for California Flora - Information on taxonomy, biology, and distribution from the UC Berkeley Jepson Herbarium.
  • CalFlora - Distribution information by county based on submitted observations and herbarium specimens.
  • CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
  • Natural Resource Projects Inventory - State database with information on resource management projects throughout California. Query by the species of interest.