Cakile maritima

Cakile maritima by Waen
Photo: Waen, via Wikimedia Commons

Common names: European sea rocket

Cakile maritima (European sea rocket) is a succulent annual or perennial (family Brassicaceae) found in coastal dunes spread throughout the coast of California. European sea rocket is a common invasive plant, but its impacts appear to be relatively minor. European sea rocket reproduces by seed, which is distributed by ship ballasts, sand transport, tidal movement, and human activity. In comparison to native dune plants, it produces more seed, disperses greater distances, and tolerates more disturbances. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the plant may have allelopathic effects, but these effects have not been observed in field experiments. It is native to Europe.

Cal-IPC Rating: Limited?

CDFA Rating: None?


Plant Assessment Form - Information gathered by Cal-IPC on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in California. Does not include management information.

Weed Management Notes

  • Management Notes - Information on management techniques and effectiveness from the University of California Cooperative Extension’s Weed Research & Information Center.

Cal-IPC Newsletter Articles

Cal-IPC Symposium Presentations

Presentations are linked where available. Where a presentation is not available, find more information by reading the abstract in the Cal-IPC Symposia Archive.

There are no Symposium presentations associated with this species yet.

Other Cakile maritima Information

  • CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
  • Calflora - Distribution map and records of this species in California.
  • CalWeedMapper - Distribution map of this species in California with ability to determine regional priorities.
  • EDDMapS - Distribution of this species in North America.
  • Jepson Interchange - Information on this plant's taxonomy, biology, and distribution from UC Berkeley's Jepson Herbarium.
  • USDA PLANTS Database - Information on identification and distribution, with links to websites in individual states.
  • Additional photos

    Cakile maritima_flowers_Ron Vanderhoff_cropped
    Cakile maritima (European sea rocket) flowers. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff
    Cakile maritima_growth habit_Ron Vanderhoff_cropped
    Cakile maritima (European sea rocket) growth habit. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff
    Cakile maritima (European sea rocket) infestation. Photo: &#169 2020 Neal Kramer
    Cakile maritima_seed pods__copyright_2009_NealKramer
    Cakile maritima (European sea rocket) seed pods. Photo: &#169 2009 Neal Kramer