Plant Assessment Form

Sinapis arvensis

Synonyms: Brassica arvensis, Brassica kaber

Common Names: wild mustard; canola; charlock mustard; common mustard; crunch-weed; field kale; field mustard; kedlock; rapeseed

Evaluated on: 3/22/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Joanna Clines
Cynthia Roye
Doug Johnson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U
Impact?
Four-part score UCDD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels D. Negligible Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment C. Minor Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
8 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal D. None Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
C. Limited Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Described as highly invasive (1), but most references list it in heavily disturbed areas such as roadsides or crops rather than in wildlands. One of many non-native species that invades grasslands that are habitat for the federally threatened San Joaquin adobe sunburst (Pseudobahia peirsonii) (2).


Sources of information:

1. Warwick, S. I., H. J. Beckie, et al. 2000 The biology of Canadian weeds. 8. Sinapis arvensis. L. (updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 80(4): 939-961.
2. US Fish and Wildlife Service. updated 2002. Species account for San Joaquin adobe sunburst. Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office. Accessed on-line: http://www.fws.gov/pacific/sacramento/es/plant_spp_accts/san_joaquin_adobe_sunburst.htm


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? D Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Seeds contain toxic chemicals and in large quantities can be fatally toxic to livestock (1). However, it's unpalatable, so animals probably won't eat large quantities (2).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. in prep.
2. Warwick, S. I., H. J. Beckie, et al. 2000 The biology of Canadian weeds. 8. Sinapis arvensis. L. (updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 80(4): 939-961.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

None No native Sinapis species in California (1). S. arvensis is not known to produce interspecific hybrids (2).


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA
2. Warwick, S. I., H. J. Beckie, et al. 2000) The biology of Canadian weeds. 8. Sinapis arvensis. L. (updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 80(4): 939-961.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits disturbed areas: roadsides, fields, ditch banks, dry washes, clearings, river banks (1, 2).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. Warwick et al. in prep.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Does not spread much, if at all, in natural or wildland areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Other Published Material
Describe trend:

Present throughout California (1) so total area infested probably not increasing, or at least not much.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Winter or summer annual. Mostly self-incompatible. Flowers February to May, occasionally to October (1). Has an indeterminate growth habit and continues to produce mature seed pods until frost. Maximum viable seed production in one study was 3300/ square m (2). Has a long-lived seed bank (1,2,3).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. Warwick, S. I., H. J. Beckie, et al. 2000. The biology of Canadian weeds. 8. Sinapis arvensis. L. (updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 80(4): 939-961
3. Lutman, P. J. W., G. W. Cussans, et al. 2002. The persistence of seeds of 16 weed species over six years in two arable fields. Weed Research 42(3): 231-241..


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds can be dispersed by agricultural activities and as contaminants of seed and feed (1).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488..


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? D Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds fall near parent plant or disperse longer distances with water or mud, but these would rarely happen (1).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy in prep.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

Native to Europe. Present all over the world from coastal to montane areas up to 1800m, in disturbed sites (1).


Sources of information:

1. Warwick et al. 2000


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? C Other Published Material

Present throughout California, except deserts and Great Basin, to 500m (1). Not common in wildland or natural communities.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Very infrequent in wildlands. Mainly associated with roadsides or agricultural areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 6
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): C
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Sonoran Desert
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest