Plant Assessment Form

Salsola paulsenii

Synonyms: formerly considered part of Russian thistle species (Salsola iberica or Salsola tragus)

Common Names: barbwire Russian thistle

Evaluated on: 3/22/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
John Randall
Carri Pirosko
Dan Gluesenkamp
Gina Skurka
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UCCD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
6 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal D. Does not occur Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
C. Limited Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Forms dense stands (1). The similar Salsola tragus is thought to facilitate colonization of other plants by forming pools of phosphorous in the soil (2). Generally found in disturbed sites or along roadsides. Because seeds tend to fall close to the parent plants, barbwire Russian thistle plants are often clumped together (1).


Sources of information:

1. Evans, R. A. and J. A. Young 1982. Russian thistle and barbwire Russian thistle seed and seedbed ecology, US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARR-W-25. 39pp
2. Cannon, J.P., E.B. Allen, M.F. Allen, L.M. Dudley, and J.J. Jurinak. 1995. The effects of oxalates produced by Salsola tragus on the phosphorus nutrition of Stipa pulchra. Oecologia 102: 265-272.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can accumulate oxalates that are toxic to livestock, especially sheep. Diarrhea and toxicity problems can occur when sheep forage on Salsola species for several weeks (1). However, considered good fodder for sheep (and camels) (2).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso, J.,and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.
2. Kostivkovsky, V., and J. A. Young. 2000. Invasive exotic rangeland weeds: a glimpse at some of their native habitats. Rangelands. 22(6): 3-6.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

No native Salsola in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits disturbed areas, including disturbed natural and semi-natural plant communities, but is usually found in disturbed sites (1).


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Does not form dense stands in wildland areas. Primarily a problem along roadsides or disturbed sites.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Does not appear to be any more common today than several years ago.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

1. Evans, R. A. and J. A. Young. 1980. Establishment of Barbwire Russian Thistle Salsola-Paulsenii in Desert Environments. Journal of Range Management 33(3): 169-173
2. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
3.Evans, R. A. and J. A. Young 1982. Russian thistle and barbwire Russian thistle seed and seedbed ecology, USDA-ARS: 1-39.


Sources of information:

Has been spread in contaminated cotton and wool (1). Could be spread by livestock, but long distance human transport is probably rare.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Has been spread in contaminated cotton and wool (1). Could be spread by livestock, but long distance human transport is probably rare.


Sources of information:

1. Kostivkovsky and Young 2000


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Most seeds fall underneath the parent plant. Unlike Russian thistle, barbwire Russian thistle does not need to "tumble" to release seeds (1). At least 60% of seeds fall within 1.5m of the parent plant. However, hybrids with S. iberica can form tumbleweeds (2 ).


Sources of information:

1. Young, J. A. and R. A. Evans 1979. Barbwire Russian Thistle Salsola-Paulsenii Seed Germination. Journal of Range Management 32(5): 390-394
2. Lee, M. A. B. and T. Brothers 1981. Seed Dispersal in Hybrid Salsola. Great Basin Naturalist 41(3): 370-376.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

Native to Eurasia. Probably introduced to the southwestern U.S. at the turn of the century (1) from contaminated wool or cotton (2), but was not recognized as a species until 1967 (1) when it was found at the Nevada atomic bomb test site (2). Also present in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and Oregon (1). One of the most widely-occurring alien annuals in western North America (3). Scoring as C because already common in California.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. Kostivkovsky, V., and J. A. Young. 2000. Invasive exotic rangeland weeds: a glimpse at some of their native habitats. Rangelands. 22(6): 3-6
3. Young, J. A. and R. A. Evans 1979. Barbwire Russian Thistle Salsola-Paulsenii Seed Germination. Journal of Range Management 32(5): 390-394.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? C Other Published Material

Common in Mojave Desert, east of the Sierra Nevada, northern Western Transverse Ranges, mostly 700-1800m (1). USDA lists it in Santa Barbara, Kern, Inyo, and San Bernadino counties (2). Can establish at low levels in arid desert conditions (3). Prefers to grow under the canopies of desert trees and shrubs such as Haloxylon, Tamarix, Salsola, and Ephedra, among others (4).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
3. Evans, R. A. and J. A. Young. 1980. Establishment of Barbwire Russian Thistle Salsola-Paulsenii in Desert Environments. Journal of Range Management 33(3): 169-173.
4. Kostivkovsky and Young 2000


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Frequently found in the desert areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Yes
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 3
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: C?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrubD, < 5%
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)C, 5% - 20%
Great Basin scrubD, < 5%
chenopod scrubD, < 5%
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): C
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert