Plant Assessment Form

Plantago lanceolata

Common Names: English plantain; buckhorn plantain; buck plantain; black-jacks; narrowleaf plantain; lanceleaf plantain; ribbed plantain; ribgrass; ribwort

Evaluated on: 3/23/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Joanna Clines
Cynthia Roye
Doug Johnson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UCUU Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Observational
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels U. Unknown
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity U. Unknown
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
9 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal D. None Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can form fairly dense infestations in forested areas, but generally investations are not dense.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? U
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? U

There are seven native species of Plantago. No information on hybridization.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits disturbed places such as roadsides, right of ways, and pastures, but can invade open forested areas and riparian sites.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy, in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Populations in the state appear to be fairly stable.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Other Published Material
Describe trend:

Buckhorn plantain is in all contiguous states and nearly worldwide.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy in prep.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Annual, biennial, or perennial. Self-incompatible (1). Reproduces by both seed and lateral crown shoots (2). Some buried seeds survive for up to 20 years (1).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy in prep.
2. Wilken, D. and L. Hannah. 1998. Plantago.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds become sticky with mucilage when moistened.
Seeds fall near the parent plant and disperse to greater distances with water, soil movement, mud, as a seed contaminant, vehicle tires, landscape and agricultural equipment.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? D Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds become sticky with mucilage when moistened.
Seeds fall near the parent plant and disperse to greater distances with water, soil movement, mud, as a seed contaminant, vehicle tires, landscape and agricultural equipment.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Widespread in a number of different habitats, probably similar to other areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Present in a variety of disturbed sites and some undisturbed sites throughout California.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Not common in any locations.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 7
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
DunescoastalD, < 5%
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubD, < 5%
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grasslandD, < 5%
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forestD, < 5%
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestD, < 5%
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forestD, < 5%
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert