Plant Assessment Form

Hypochaeris glabra

Common Names: smooth cat's-ear

Evaluated on: 3/16/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
John Randall
Carri Pirosko
Dan Gluesenkamp
Gina Skurka
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U
Impact?
Four-part score UCDD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels D. Negligible Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
10 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal B. Occasional Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Reviewed Scientific Publication
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

No information.


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

One of the exotic forbs that dominated a severely disturbed site in Southern California that did not revert back to native species even 70 years after disturbance ceased (1). However, mostly low impacts.


Sources of information:

1. Stylinski, C. D. and E. B. Allen. 1999. Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. Journal of Applied Ecology 36(4): 544-554
Joe DiTomaso, UC Davis; Peter Warner, California State Parks; Carri Pirosko, California Dept. of Food and Agriculture. pers. obs.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? D Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Palatable to livestock.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

None No native Hypochaeris species.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits disturbed places, fields, grasslands, pastures, roadsides. Undisturbed vegetation cover discourages catsear establishment and reproduction (1). However, occurred in higher frequency in unburned plots than burned plots in a Sierra Nevada grassland, probably because its small seeds lodged in the organic layer and were susceptible to fire (2). Was one of the dominant forbs on disturbed sites in a southern California grassland but was less common on undisturbed sites (3).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. York, D. 1997. A fire ecology study of a Sierra Nevada foothill basaltic mesa grassland. Madrono 44(4): 374-383
3. Stylinski, C. D. and E. B. Allen. 1999. Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. Journal of Applied Ecology 36(4): 544-554.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

Can spread rapidly depending on the situation. Moves into areas with disturbance, such as grasslands following fire or in overgrazed areas. Will not compete well in healthy grasslands.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Other Published Material
Describe trend:

Present throughout California, so probably not spreading much.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Annual. Flowers March to June. Reproduces by seed. Germination fall through spring.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Can disperse with human activities, but this is probably very uncommon.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds disperse with wind and by clinging to the fur, feathers, and feet of animals.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to Europe. Present in Oregon, Washington, many southern states, and a few eastern states (1). Also in Texas (2).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. Diggs, G. M., Jr., R. J. O'Kennon, et al. 1997. Hypochaeris glabra (Asteraceae), a new record for Texas. Sida Contributions to Botany 17(13): 633-634.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Reviewed Scientific Publication

Present throughout California except deserts and Great Basin, to 1200m. Inhabits disturbed places, fields, grasslands, pastures, roadsides (1). Occurs in coastal prairie (2), chaparral (3), and Sierra Nevada foothill grasslands (4). Smooth catsear often thrivse on overgrazed pastures and rangeland.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. Marvier, M. A. 1998. Parasite impacts on host communities: Plant parasitism in a California coastal prairie. Ecology 79(8): 2616-2623.
3. Stylinski, C. D. and E. B. Allen. 1999. Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. Journal of Applied Ecology 36(4): 544-554
4. York, D. 1997. A fire ecology study of a Sierra Nevada foothill basaltic mesa grassland. Madrono 44(4): 374-383.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

review committee members, personal observations.


Sources of information:

same as 3.1


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubC, 5% - 20%
coastal scrubC, 5% - 20%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparralD, < 5%
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandC, 5% - 20%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodlandC, 5% - 20%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert
  • Great Valley
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest