Plant Assessment Form

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Common Names: red gum; river red gum; Red River gum

Evaluated on: 5/17/05

List committee review date:

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org

No list committee members listed

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes C Observational
Impact?
Four-part score CCUD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Observational
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels U. Unknown
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment C. Minor Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
6 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded U. Unknown
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? C Observational
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Uses large amounts of water and can dry up streams in South Africa (1). Changes soil chemistry through allelopathy (2). Has not escaped here to have any affect on abiotic processes.


Sources of information:

1. Forsyth, G. G., D. M. Richardson, P. J. Brown, and B. W. van Wilgen. 2004. A rapid assessment of the invasive status of Eucalyptus species in two South African provinces. South African Journal of Science. 100:75-77
2. Del Moral, R., and C. H. Muller. 1970. The allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. American Midland Naturalist. 83: 254-283
Joe DiTomaso, observational.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Allelopathic. In California, annual herbs rarely survive to maturity where Eucalyptus litter accumulates. A bare zone often occurs in the zone between herbs and trees. Eucalyptus contains several toxins, including terpenes. Has not escaped here to have any affect on plant communities.


Sources of information:

1. Del Moral and Muller 1970
DiTomaso, observational.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? U
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Eucalyptus globulus is reported to be poor wildlife habitat, but there is no specific information for E. camaldulensis.


Sources of information:

Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

None No native Eucalyptus species in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C
Describe role of disturbance:

Garden escape in disturbed habitats, but typically urban disturbed sites..


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C
Describe rate of spread:

Vry uncommon as an escape.


Sources of information:

Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C
Describe trend:

no information


Sources of information:

Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Based on similar Eucalyptus globulus: Reproductive at several years old. Flowers late fall to spring. Fruit ripens the following fall to spring. Good seed crops produced at intervals of several years. Seeds are small and dispersed by wind. Germination rates highly variable. Not enough information to score.


Sources of information:

Boyd, D. 2000. Eucalyptus globulus. pp. 183-187 in Bossard, C. C., J. M. Randall, and M. C. Hochovsky. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Commonly planted as an ornamental tree (1). Uncommon escapee from plantings (2).


Sources of information:

1. Scalise, K. 2000. UC Berkeley discovery to make possible June 7 attempt to cure California's sick eucalyptus trees. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, News and Information Outreach. http://news.ucanr.org. June 6, 2000
2. DiTomaso and Healy in prep.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds may dispersed by wind, but no information on how far they are carried. Expected that fruit drop to the ground below parent plant.


Sources of information:

Boyd 2000


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? U
Identify other regions:

Native to Australia, where it has an extensive range and grows primarily in riparian habitats (1). Invasive in South Africa (2), Hawaii, and Puerto Rico (3) but no record of ecosystems. Can't score without information about its range in California.


Sources of information:

1. Del Moral and Muller 1970
2. Forsyth et al. 2004
3. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? B Other Published Material

Uncommon garden escape in Inner North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Central Valley, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, South Coast, and Channel Islands (= Jepson regions NW, GV, CW, SW) (1). Reported from Sonoma, Tehama, Butte, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and San Diego counties (2). Invades grasslands in Santa Barbara County (3). Most other areas of escape are in urban environments.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
2. USDA, NRCS 2004
3. Del Moral and Muller 1970


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

Uncommon ornamental escape, generally in disturbed areas.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less No
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Yes
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 3
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: C?

Related traits:

Many of these scores are based on Eucalyptus globulus.

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert