Plant Assessment Form

Cynosurus echinatus

Common Names: hedgehog dogtail; annual dogtail; bristly dogtail grass; hedgehoggy

Evaluated on: 3/21/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph M. DiTomaso
University of California, Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Jake Sigg
Peter Warner
Bob Case
John Knapp
Elizabeth Brusati

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Observational
Impact?
Four-part score BBBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Observational
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Observational
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
11 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Observational
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal B. Occasional Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score A
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
A. High Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Observational
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Invasion of annual grasses may have changed the amount of soil moisture available during the summer. No information on this species specifically. Can also change the fire frequency in grasslands.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Part of the invasive annuals collective (Geranium spp., Torilis spp., et al.) that displaces many native understory species (1).
Here and there in our Bald Hills prairies (HUM), can form monocultures. Have seen it worse in Southern Oregon, same habitat (QUGA4 woodlands), they even have a white oak/hedgehog dogtail association in their forest mapping (2).


Sources of information:

1. Personal communication, Peter Warner, California State Parks, Mendocino County
2. Personal communication, Andrea Williams, Redwood State and National Parks.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Long awns on inflorescence make plants unpalatable later in year. Not good quality or quantity forage for wildlife.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

None No native Cynosurus in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

A pioneer species. In one study in oak woodlands, was found in sites heavily disturbed by cattle (1). Inhabits disturbed places (2).


Sources of information:

1. Jimerson, T. M., and S. K. Carothers. 2002. Northwest California Oak Woodlands: Environment, Species Composition, and Ecological Status. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-184
2. DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy, in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Would spread at a slow rate in an uninfested area.


Sources of information:

Personal communication, Peter Warner, California State Parks, Mendocino County.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

It's already widespread (see 3.1 and 3.2), so probably stable at this point.


Sources of information:

Personal communication, Peter Warner, California State Parks, Mendocino County.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Annual grass. Reproduces by seed. A persistent seedbank does not appear to develop (1). In an oak woodland, few seeds survived into the second year, and most of those were seedlings rather than dormant seed (2).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy in prep
2. Clark, D. L. and M. V. Wilson 2003. Post-dispersal seed fates of four prairie species. American Journal of Botany 90(5): 730-735..


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Possibly some movement in hayfields, but this is not a common weed in areas with hay production.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Awned seeds facilitate long distance transport by animals, but most seed probably drop directly beneath parent plant. Fertile florets fall near the parent plant and probably disperse to greater distances with water, mud, and by clinging to animals, vehicle tires, and human shoes and clothing. A persistent seedbank does not appear to develop.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to Europe. One of the most invasive species of Oregon oak woodlands in British Columbia. Also occurs in Oregon, Washington, many eastern and southern states, and a few south-central states.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy in prep.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Present in northwestern region, central-western region, Sierra Nevada foothills, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), western Transverse Ranges, and possibly south coast, to 1000m. Inhabits grassland, chaparral, oak woodland, summer dry pasture, coastal bluffs and terraces, riverbanks, and other disturbed places (1).Very common along the coast, and even more so inland. A major understory component in oak woodlands (so is somewhat shade-tolerant), and in almost all grasslands in the N. Coast Ranges and along the coast (2). Roadsides, fields, grassland, chaparral, oak woodland, summer dry pasture, coastal bluffs and terraces, riverbanks, other disturbed places.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso and Healy in prep
2. Personal communication, Peter Warner, California State Parks, Mendocino County.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? A Observational
Describe distribution:

Spotty occurrence in oak woodlands and annual rangelands in the El Dorado county area (<1% infested). Not spreading (1). However, is a major component of grasslands and oak woodlands on the north coast.


Sources of information:

1. Personal communication, Wendy West, UC Cooperative Extension, El Dorado county.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubD, < 5%
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparralD, < 5%
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieA, > 50%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodlandC, 5% - 20%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestD, < 5%
closed cone coniferous forestD, < 5%
lower montane coniferous forestD, < 5%
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): A

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert
  • Great Valley
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest