Plant Assessment Form

Crupina vulgaris

Common Names: common crupina

Evaluated on: 1-Aug-03

List committee review date: 01/08/2003

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Joe DiTomaso
UC Davis
Weed Science Program, Robbins Hall, Univ. California, Davis CA 95616
530-754-8715
DiTomaso@vegmail.ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Jake Sigg
Peter Warner
Doug Johnson
Joe DiTomaso
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Other Published Material
Impact?
Four-part score BCCD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels C. Minor Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Observational
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
10 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state D. Declining Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded B. Invades 1 or 2 ecological types Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Reviewed Scientific Publication
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Other Published Material
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Can increase soil erosion, but has not done so in California to date.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Forms dense populations that dominate forages or disrupt and deplete rangelands, and reduces biodiversity of many native ecosystems. Not as dominant in California. Densities in other states ranged from 161 to 323 plants per m2.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Poor forage for wildlife. In other states it has degraded habitat for some wildlife species.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Observational

Probably none. No other species of Crupina in California.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Adapted to a wide range of habitats, but prefers disturbed sites. Biological characteristics favor movement to undisturbed sites even more than yellow starthistle.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.; Roche, C.T. and D.C. Thill. 2001. Biology of common crupina and yellow starthistle, two Mediterranean winter annual invaders in western North America. Weed Sci. 49:439-447.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

Spread rapidly in other states but not as rapidly in California.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.; DiTomaso, observational


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? D Other Published Material
Describe trend:

CDFA efforts have reduced populations in California. Currently it is considered very uncommon.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2005. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California (in press)


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

both self and cross pollination. Seed produced every year, but seed so large that it does not produce >1000 per m2. Seed longevity about 3 years or less in soil.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.; DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2005. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California (in press); Zamora, D. L. and Thill, D. C. 1989 Seed bank longevity of common crupina (Crupina vulgaris) in natural populations. Weed Technol. 3:166-169.; Thill, D. C., Zamora, D. L., and Kambitsch, D. L. 1985. Germination and viability of common crupina (Crupina vulgaris) achenes buried in the field. Weed Sci. 33:344-348.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Recreational vehicles can spread seeds over long distance but this is very uncommon.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seed blow about 5 feet with wind. Deer and rodents also move seed but short distances. Can move through animal digestive tract. Movement over 1 km probably very uncommon.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.; Thill, D. C., Zamora, D. L., and Kambitsch, D. L. 1986. The germination and viability of excreted common crupina (Crupina vulgaris) achenes. Weed Sci. 34:237-241.; Prather, T. S., Callihan, R. H., and Thill, D. C. 1991. Common crupina: biology, management and eradication. Curr.Inf.Ser.Coop.Ext.Serv.Univ.Idaho. (880).


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? B Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Economic pest in rangelands of southern Russia. Other western states, but often in rangelands where it is not yet found in California.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Reviewed Scientific Publication

First discovered in US (Idaho) in 1968 and in California in 1975. Found in many habitats but not all in California. However, its range is expected to increase because of its wide tolerance to temperature and photoperiod conditions. In addition, it has only been here for a short period and may not have had the opportunity to spread yet.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.; Roche, C.T. and D.C. Thill. 2001. Biology of common crupina and yellow starthistle, two Mediterranean winter annual invaders in western North America. Weed Sci. 49:439-447.; DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2005. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California (in press); Patterson, D. T. and Mortensen, D. A. 1985. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on common crupina (Crupina vulgaris). Weed Sci. 33:333-339.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

Forested areas and some scrubland.


Sources of information:

Thill, D.C., C.T. Roche and D.L. Zamora. 1999. Common crupina. Pp. 189-201. In, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Eds. R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff, Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.; DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2005. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California (in press); Quibell, C.F. 1991. Notes. Crupina vulgaris. Madrono 38(4):296.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Yes
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 5
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D, < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forestD, < 5%
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Modoc Plateau
  • Northwest