Plant Assessment Form

Alhagi maurorum

Synonyms: Alhagi pseudalhagi

Common Names: camelthorn

Evaluated on: 1-Aug-03

List committee review date: 01/08/2003

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Joe DiTomaso
UC Davis
Weed Science Program, Robbins Hall, Univ. California, Davis CA 95616
530-754-8715
DiTomaso@vegmail.ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Jake Sigg
Peter Warner
Doug Johnson
Joe DiTomaso
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

Edited text on 1/3/17, updated references.

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score BBCD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels C. Minor Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Observational
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
13 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state D. Declining Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Considered a water waster.


Sources of information:

Kerr, H.D.,. W.C. Robacker and T.J. Muzik. 1965. Characteristics and control of camelthorn. Weeds 13(2): 156-163


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can outcompete both native vegetation and crops. Dense stands can be impenetrable.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Spiny stems can injure animals, but livestock will eat it and often seek it out.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Observational

Probably none. No other species of Alhagi in California.


Sources of information:

Jepson eFlora: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=12455. Accessed January 3, 2017.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe role of disturbance:

Agricultural weed that prefers disturbance, but can invade non-disturbed areas. Weed of agricultural areas and disturbed fields.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Parsons, W.T., and E.G. Culhbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Syndey, Australia, pp. 464-466.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe rate of spread:

High rate of spread. Can expand circularly by 7.4 m per year.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Bottel, A.E.1933. Introduction and control of camelthorn. Calif. State Dept. Agric. Monthly Bulletin, 22:261-263


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? D Other Published Material
Describe trend:

Nearly eradicated from state due to County and CDFA control efforts.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California
O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California
O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley
Kassas, M. 1952. On the reproductive capacity and life cycle of Alhagi maurorum. Proc. Egyptian Acad. Sci. 8:114-122.


Sources of information:

Although it used to be spread as a legume seed contaminant, it is unlikely that humans spread it much today.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Although it used to be spread as a legume seed contaminant, it is unlikely that humans spread it much today.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds and root pieces can spread with wind and water. Ball of entangled aerial parts can blow long distances. Seeds can also move long distances and remain viable in animal fecal material.


Sources of information:

Kerr, H.D.,. W.C. Robacker and T.J. Muzik. 1965. Characteristics and control of camelthorn. Weeds 13(2): 156-163
O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley
Richardson, J.M. 1953. Camelthorn (Alhagi camelorum Fisch.) J. Dept. Agr. South Australia. 57:18-20,33..


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Weedy in other southwestern states (also Washington), as well as South Africa and Australia.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley
Parsons, W.T., and E.G. Culhbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Syndey, Australia, pp. 464-466.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

First reported in California in 1915. Found in saline meadows, playas, sandbars, riverbanks, irrigation canals. Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, Central Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills.


Sources of information:

Kerr, H.D.,. W.C. Robacker and T.J. Muzik. 1965. Characteristics and control of camelthorn. Weeds 13(2): 156-163
DiTomaso, J.M. and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California. Div. Nat. Agr. Res. Univ. California
O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

Eradication program by CDFA has dramatically reduced populations. Less than 4 ha remain in California by 1992.


Sources of information:

O'Connell, R. and M.C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Alhagi pseudalhagi. Pages 37-41. In, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Eds, C. C. Bossard, J.M. Randall and M.C. Hoshovsky. University of California Press, Berkeley
Parsons, W.T., and E.G. Culhbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Syndey, Australia, pp. 464-466.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. No
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere Yes
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 7
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)D, < 5%
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal poolD, < 5%
meadow and seepD, < 5%
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D, < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodlandD, < 5%
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Great Valley
  • Southwest
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert