Profile link Scientific name Latin synonyms Common names Rating CDFA Calflora ID CWM Photo URLs Photo captions Description
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-baileyana-profile/Acacia baileyana cootamundra wattle Watch27 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acacia-baileyana_C122-08-1.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Acacia baileyana (cootamunda wattle) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with yellow flowers and finely dissected leaves found in the coastal ranges, San Francisco Bay area and transverse ranges of California. It is native to Southeastern Australia. It favors scrub and chaparral habitat. It has long-lived seeds that accumulate in the soil and germinate after fires, hot weather or other disturbances. It spreads via ants, wind, water and dumped garden waste. View the Jepson Herbarium video to help identify Acacia species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-cyclops-profile/Acacia cyclops cyclops acacia Watch28 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acacia-cyclops_Ron-Vanderhoff-Copy.jpeg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Acacia cyclops (cyclops acacia) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with golden yellow flowers and narrow leaves found in the coastal ranges and peninsular ranges of California. It is native to Southwestern Australia. It occurs in dunes. Its seeds are dispersed via birds and the germination process may be assisted by the seed\'s passage through the bird\'s gut.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-dealbata-profile/Acacia dealbataAcacia decurrens var. dealbata silver wattle Moderate29 102 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acacia-dealbata_silver-wattle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Acacia dealbata (silver wattle) is a tree (family Fabaceae) found in the coastal ranges, San Francisco Bay area, and south coast of California. It favors disturbed places in coastal prairies, riparian areas and coniferous forests. Silver wattle is often confused with green wattle (Acacia decurrens), but is distinguishable by the small, silvery hairs that grow on its twigs. It spreads via rhizomes and seeds, and easily resprouts after being cut. Acacia dealbata changes soil chemistry by fixing nitrogen, and the plants’ fallen leaves may have allelopathic effects that prevent the growth of native understory plants. Like many acacias, silver wattle is commonly planted as an ornamental. View the Jepson Herbarium video to help identify Acacia species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-longifolia-profile/Acacia longifolia Sydney golden wattle Watch34 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-longifolia_vanderhoff5.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-longifolia_vanderhoff6.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-longifolia_vanderhoff8.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-longifolia_vanderhoff15.jpg" "Photo: Ron Vanderhoff","Acacia longifolia, Sydney golden wattle, mature leaves and flowers. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff","Acacia longifolia, Sydney golden wattle, seedling. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff","Acacia longifolia, Sydney golden wattle, fruits and mature leaves. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff" Acacia longifolia (Sydney golden wattle) is a summer-blooming shrub or tree in the pea family (Fabaceae) that is native to Australia. It is variable in size and has been cultivated as an ornamental. Its leaves are leathery and strap-like, finger-wide and long, with parallel veins and have a conspicuous basal gland with no resinous margins. Flowers are yellow and arranged in short spikes in leaf axils. This Acacia is a prolific seeder that can form large seed banks; long-term control is difficult if populations are left to spread. As of this posting, it has been reported in California\'s coastal counties from Sonoma County south to San Diego. Outside of California, Sydney golden wattle has become invasive in other parts of Australia (Victoria, New South Wales), New Zealand, South Africa, Spain, Portugal and Brazil. 
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-melanoxylon-profile/Acacia melanoxylon blackwood acacia Limited36 103 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acacia-melanoxylon_black-acacia_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Acacia melanoxylon (black acacia) is a tree (family Fabaceae) found along the coast of California, in the North and South Coast Ranges, and the San Francisco Bay region. It favors disturbed areas, and is often found near buildings and agricultural sites. Black acacia, which has spherical cream-colored flowers, was introduced as a landscape ornamental and has escaped cultivation in some areas. Black acacia trees can develop root suckers that grow to become large clonal populations. The trees also reproduce using seeds that are dispersed by water movement and human activities. To control mature trees, most root fragments must be removed to prevent resprouting.   View the Jepson Herbarium video to help identify Acacia species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-paradoxa-profile/Acacia paradoxa kangaroothorn WatchB*37 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acacia-paradoxa_C122-06.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Acacia paradoxa (kangaroothorn) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with yellow flowers and spiny branches found in the coastal ranges of California. It is native to Southeastern Australia. It favors woodland habitats. It is pollinated by beetles, wasps, bees and other insects. Its seeds are dispersed via water, birds and human activities.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-pycnantha-profile/Acacia pycnantha golden wattle Watch38 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acacia-pycnantha_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Acacia pycnantha (golden wattle) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with golden yellow flowers and narrow leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and coastal ranges of California. It is native to Southeastern Australia. It favors woodland habitats. It spreads via long-lived seeds, and is dispersed by ants, birds, wind, water and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acacia-saligna-profile/Acacia salignaAcacia cyanophylla, Acacia bracteata, Acacia lindleyi, Mimosa saligna, Racosperma salignum Orange wattle Watch9641 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-saligna_vanderhoff2_edited.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-saligna_vanderhoff1.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Acacia-saligna_vanderhoff3.jpg" "Photo: Ron Vanderhoff","Acacia saligna, orange wattle, growth habit. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff","Acacia saligna, orange wattle, mature leaves. Photo: Ron Vanderhoff" Acacia saligna (golden wreath wattle, orange wattle) is a shrubby tree in the pea family (Fabaceae) that is native to Australia. It is grown as an ornamental and has become naturalized in coastal and southern California as well as in other Mediterranean climates in South Africa, parts of southern Europe, and where it is not native in southeastern Australia. Orange wattle has long (7-21 cm), thin leaves (each with a prominant midvein) that differentiate it from other Acacia species. Flowers are arranged in racemes consisting of 2-8 heads each. Seed pods are narrow, straight, and not hairy. Plants can reproduce vegetatively and produce copious amounts of seed.  Its dense canopy can shade out other plants. Wildfire favors its spread by promoting regrowth and germination.  
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acaena-novae-zelandiae-profile/Acaena novae-zelandiae biddy-biddy WatchA*41 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acaena-novae-zelandiae_C226-04.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acaena-novae-zelandiae_biddy-biddy_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: UC Davis Weeds of California","Acaena novae-zelandiae, biddy-biddy, inflorescence and leaves. Photo: Bob Case" Acaena novae-zelandiae (biddy-biddy) is a herb/subshrub (stem succulent) (family Rosaceae) with white flowers found in the coastal ranges of California. A pale reddish colored burr is left after the flowers fall. It is native to Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea. It favors dunes, grasslands, and scrub and chaparral habitat. It can spreads via roots and by stem fragments. It disperses by burrs attaching to the fur and feathers of animals and clothing of humans.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/aegilops-cylindrica-profile/Aegilops cylindrica jointed goatgrass WatchB*105 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Aegilops-cylindrica_C171-02-1.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Aegilops cylindrica (jointed goatgrass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) with joints similar to wheat that can grow up to 4 feet tall and is found in the Cascade ranges, Modoc Plateau, Sacramento Valley and San Bernardino and peninsular ranges of southern California. It is native to Mediterranean Europe and western Asia. It favors grasslands. It spreads via agricultural and human activities, wind and water. Joints and seeds will attach to clothing, fur and feathers.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/aegilops-triuncialis-profile/Aegilops triuncialis barb goatgrass, barbed goatgrass HighB*107 104 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Aegilops-triuncialis_barb-goatgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Aegilops triuncialis (barb goatgrass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) that grows in rangelands, grasslands, and oak woodlands. It is becoming a dominant grass in foothill grasslands of central California. This weed can directly injure livestock by lodging in their eyes or mouths, and is unpalatable to cattle.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ageratina-adenophora-profile/Ageratina adenophoraEupatorium adenophorum, E. glandulosum, E. pasadense. eupatory, croftonweed, thoroughwort, sticky snakeroot, catweed, hemp agrimony, sticky agrimony, sticky eupatorium Moderate117 150 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ageratina-adenophora_Croftonweed_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo Joseph DiTomaso" Ageratina adenophora (croftonweed, eupatorium) is a perennial herb or small shrub (family Asteraceae) found along the coast of California and in the South Coast and Transverse Ranges. It prefers disturbed areas, coastal canyons, riparian areas and scrub, and is especially invasive in mild coastal areas. Originally introduced to California as an ornamental plant, croftonweed escaped cultivation by producing abundant seed that is dispersed via wind, water, soil movement, and by clinging to animals and people. This invasive plant is considered noxious in parts of Asia, Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/agrostis-avenacea-profile/Agrostis avenaceaAgrostis retrofracta Pacific bentgrass Limited138 151 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Agrostis-avenacea_-Pacific-bentgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Agrostis avenacea (Pacific bentgrass) is a perennial grass (family Pocaceae) commonly found throughout northern California and San Diego County. This weed easily outcompetes native vegetation. Pacific bentgrass inhabits open, disturbed, often moist places to 300 m elevation. It is especially invasive in vernal pool habitat in the San Diego area.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/agrostis-stolonifera-profile/Agrostis stoloniferaAgrostis alba L. var palustris (Huds.), Agrostis maritima Lam., Agrostis palustria Huds., Agrostis stolonifera L. var. compacta creeping bent; carpet bent; redtop bent; seaside bentgrass Limited156 152 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Agrostis-stolonifera_-creeping-bentgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) and is located throughout California. Creeping bentgrass is an escaped turfgrass that can aggressively out-competes native grass species by forming dense mats.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ailanthus-altissima-profile/Ailanthus altissimaA. glandulosa Desf. tree-of-heaven; Chinese sumac; paradise-tree; copal-tree ModerateC*161 2 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ailanthus-altissima_tree-of-heaven_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven) is a tree (family Simaroubaceae) that is widely but discontinuously distributed in California. It was introduced as a landscape ornamental but escapes gardens and spreads by seeds and creeping roots that produce many suckers. It is most abundant along the coast and in the Sierra foothills, primarily in wastelands and disturbed, semi-natural habitats.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/alhagi-maurorum-profile/Alhagi maurorumAlhagi pseudalhagi camelthorn ModerateA*11317 153 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Alhagi-maurorum_camelthorn_Eitan-Ferman_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Eitan Ferman" Alhagi maurorum (=A. pseudalhagi)(camelthorn) is an herbaceous perennial or shrub (family Fabaceae) found in the central valley, southeastern Sierra Nevada and portions of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of California. It favors arid agricultural areas, grasslands, meadows and desert riparian areas. One camelthorn plant can spread rapidly (about 10 m per year in all directions) by developing many new plants from its large creeping root system. Plants may resprout from roots left behind after mechanical removal, and the roots are stimulated to resprout by fire. Camelthorn seeds are also known to disperse over long distances.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/alopecurus-pratensis-profile/Alopecurus pratensis meadow foxtail Watch262 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Alopecurus-pratensis_C173-01.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be more than 3 feet high and is found in the coastal ranges, desert ranges and northern and southern ranges of California. It is native to Eurasia. It grows in grasslands, wetlands and meadows. It spreads via seeds and rhizomes through agricultural activities.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/alternanthera-philoxeroides-profile/Alternanthera philoxeroidesBucholzia philoxeroides Mart., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) alligatorweed HighA*266 49 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Alternanthera-philoxeroides_alligatorweed_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligatorweed) is a noxious herbaceous aquatic perennial (family Amaranthaceae), that forms dense floating mats. This weed grows in the San Joaquin Valley (Tulare and Kings counties), Los Angeles County, and the Sacramento Delta. It invades lakes, streams, canals, ponds and irrigation ditches. It was previously used in the aquarium trade and is currently rapidly expanding in waterways across California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/alyssum-corsicum-profile/Alyssum corsicum yellowtuft Watch "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Alyssum-Corsicum_OregonDepartmentAgriculture.jpg" "Photo courtesy of Oregon Department of Agriculture" Alyssum corsicum (yellowtuft) is a perrenial herb/subshrub (stem succulent) (family Brassicaceae) with tiny yellow flowers and silver-blue leaves found in the southern and northeastern ranges of Oregon. It is native to Southeastern Europe. It favors woodland habitats. It spreads via wind and human activities. Its seeds attach to nearby growing plants.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/alyssum-murale-profile/Alyssum murale yellowtuft Watch "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Alyssum-murale_Ghislain118-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo courtesy Wikimedia" Alyssum murale (yellowtuft) is a perennial herb/ (family Brassicaceae) with tiny yellow flowers and narrow leaves found in the southern and northeastern ranges of Oregon. It is native to Southeastern Europe. It favors woodland habitats. It spreads via wind and human activities. Its seeds attach to nearby growing plants.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ambrosia-trifida-profile/Ambrosia trifida giant ragweed WatchB*300 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ambrosia-trifida_C022-07.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) is an annual herb/ (family Asteraceae) with a long cluster of green-yellow flowers and opposite leaves found in the central western and southwestern areas of California. Giant ragweed has both female and male flower parts. It is native to the central and eastern United States. It favors grasslands. It spreads via seeds, and easily resprouts after being cut.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ammophila-arenaria-profile/Ammophila arenariaArundo arenaria European beachgrass High310 50 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ammophila-arenaria_-European-beachgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Ammophila arenaria (European beachgrass) is a clumping perennial grass (family Poaceae) found in coastal dune systems from Santa Barbara County north. European beachgrass grows more densely than native American dunegrass (Leymus mollis), trapping passing sand and creating steep dunes that run parallel to the shoreline. This prevents new sand from reaching interior dunes, resulting in changes to the structure and ecology of dune ecosystems. Native plants often cannot compete with dense stands of European beachgrass.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/anthoxanthum-odoratum-profile/Anthoxanthum odoratum sweet vernal grass; vanilla grass Limited395 105 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Anthoxanthum-odoratum_-sweet-vernalgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Anthoxanthum odoratum(sweet vernalgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that grows in hay fields, roadsides and along ditches. Sweet vernalgrass is locally common in coastal grasslands in northern California, particularly along the coast.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/araujia-sericifera-profile/Araujia sericifera bladderflower WatchB*505 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Araujia-sericifera_C017-01.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Araujia sericifera (bladderflower) is a perennial vine (family Asclepiadaceae) with white to pale pink flowers and triangular leaves found in the central and south coast ranges and transverse ranges of California. It is native to South America. It grows in woodlands, grasslands, and scrub and chaparral habitat. It\'s seed pods spread predominantly via wind, but sometimes by water or birds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/arctotheca-calendula-profile/Arctotheca calendulaArctotheca calendulacea (R. Br.) Lewin, Arctotis calendula L.; Cryptostemma calendulaceum (L.) R.Br fertile capeweed ModerateA*634 51 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Arctotheca-calendula_fertile-capeweed_J.M.-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy of Joseph DiTomaso" Arctotheca calendula (fertile capeweed) is a rosette-forming plant (family Asteraceae) found in coastal prairies of the San Francisco Bay area and California\'s north coast. An infertile type of capeweed is cultivated for use as an ornamental groundcover, and a fertile type has also been introduced. The infertile type is very competitive and can escape cultivation locally via creeping stolons, but fertile capeweed can spread faster, typically colonizing open or disturbed sites with exposed soil. Fertile capeweed is a major agricultural weed in Australia. New evidence suggests that the sterile and fertile forms are actually two separate species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/arctotheca-prostrata-profile/Arctotheca prostrataArctotheca calendula (infertile forms) capeweed; South African capeweed; cape dandelion; cape gold Moderate11138 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Arctotheca-prostrata_capeweed_Eric-Wrubel-NPS.jpeg" "Photo courtesy of Eric Wrubel/NPS" Arctotheca prostrata (sterile capeweed) is a rosette-forming plant (family Asteraceae) found in coastal prairies and as an urban escape in the San Francisco Bay area and California\'s north, central and southern coast. The infertile type of capeweed is cultivated for use as an ornamental groundcover, and a fertile type has also been introduced. The infertile type is very competitive and can escape cultivation locally via creeping stolons, but fertile capeweed can spread faster, typically colonizing open or disturbed sites with exposed soil. Fertile capeweed is a major agricultural weed in Australia. New evidence suggests that the sterile and fertile forms are actually two separate species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/arundo-donax-profile/Arundo donax giant reed HighB*732 3 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Arundo-donax_Giant-reed_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Arundo donax (giant reed) is a tall perennial grass (family Poaceae) that typically forms dense stands on disturbed sites, sand dunes, riparian areas, and wetlands. It has invaded central California River valleys in San Luis Obispo and Monterey counties, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Sacramento and San Joaquin River valleys and is also increasing in the North Coast region. Arundo donax is threatening California’s riparian ecosystems by outcompeting native species, such as willows, for water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/asparagus-asparagoides-profile/Asparagus asparagoidesMyriophyllum asparagoides, Asparagus medeoloides, Dracaena medeoloides, Elachanthera sewelliae, Luzuriaga sewelliaea, Medeola asparagoides bridal creeper; African asparagus fern; ornamental asparagus; smilax asparagus Moderate755 53 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Asparagus_asparagoides_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper or African asparagus fern) is a rhizomatous perennial herb (family Liliaceae) found in riparian woodlands of California’s central and south coast. Asparagus asparagoides colonizes both disturbed areas and undisturbed native habitats, but its current distribution is very limited. Plant shoots can form dense mats that limit light levels and then die back in the summer, creating a fire hazard. Plant colonies may also form a dense tuberous mat underground, preventing other plants from accessing soil moisture and nutrients.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/asphodelus-fistulosus-profile/Asphodelus fistulosusAsphodelus tenuifolius Cav. onion weed; asphodel; hollow stemmed asphodel; wild onion ModerateB*758 54 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Asphodelus-fistulosus_Onionweed_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Asphodelus fistulosus (onionweed) is an annual/perennial herb (family Liliaceae) found in dry, sandy and rocky places, as well as pastures, roadsides and waste places. Livestock avoid eating it, allowing it to create dense stands that crowd out more desirable forage species in pastures. It is primarily found along coastal regions of southern California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/atriplex-semibaccata-profile/Atriplex semibaccataAtriplex denticulata, Atriplex flagellaris Australian saltbush; berry saltbush; creeping saltbush; scrambing berry saltbush Moderate1003 154 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Atriplex-semibaccata_Australian-saltbush_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) is a spreading, shrubby perennial (family Chenopodiaceae). It was introduced as a forage plant in the 1920’s. Since then, Australian saltbush has escaped cultivation and is now invasive in coastal grasslands and scrub, and the higher ground of salt marshes.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/avena-barbata-profile/Avena barbata slender oat Moderate1017 106 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Avena-barbata_slender-oat_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Avena barbata (slender wild oat) is a winter annual grass (family Poaceae) that grows in nearly every grassland area of the state. It does well in sandy/poor soils, often on the road verges. It is one of the annual grasses that was introduced as a forage species and has replaced the native perennial grasses.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/avena-fatua-profile/Avena fatua wild oats Moderate1018 106 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Avena-fatua_wildoat_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Avena fatua (wild oat) is a winter annual grass (family Poaceae) that is a common agricultural weed. It grows in most grassland sites within the state, particularly in sandy/poor soils, often on the road verges. It is one of the annual grasses that was introduced as a forage species and has replaced the native perennial grasses.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bassia-hyssopifolia-profile/Bassia hyssopifoliaEchinopsilon hyssopifolius (Pallus) Moq., Kochia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Schrad., Salsola hyssopifolia (Pall.) five-hook bassia; five horn bassia; five-horn smotherweed; hyssop-leaved echinopsilon; smotherweed; thorn orache; Limited1060 155 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bassia-hyssopifolia_fivehook_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia) is an annual herb (family Chenopodiaceae) found throughout California, except in high elevation areas in the northwestern region of the state and Sierra Nevada Mountains. It prefers wetland areas, alkaline habitats and disturbed places such as roadsides and fields. Fivehook bassia is acceptable forage for sheep in small amounts, but the foliage can be toxic in large quantities. The plant produces copious amounts of seed, but small populations can be controlled by mechanically removing plants before seed set. Mowing and grazing are not suitable control methods, as the plants commonly resprout from the base after such treatment.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bellardia-trixago-profile/Bellardia trixagoBartsia trixago L., Rhinanthus trixago L. bellardia; mediterranean lineseed Limited1064 156 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bellardia-trixago_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Bellardia trixago (bellardia) is an annual herb (family Scrophulariaceae) found in the San Francisco Bay region, southern Sacramento Valley, western North Coast Ranges and central coast of California. It is commonly found in disturbed grasslands, including rare serpentine grasslands, as well as along roadsides and in fields. Bellardia is a hemi-parasitic plant that connects its shallow roots to those of host plants. The plants rely on these host plants to obtain necessary nutrients for survival, but is capable of photosynthesis. The impacts and invasiveness of bellardia are generally minor, but it can crowd out rare native plants that are endemic to serpentine soils.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/berberis-darwinii-profile/Berberis darwinii Darwin barberry Watch8502 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Berberis-darwinii_Zoya-Akulova.jpeg" "Photo courtesy Zoya Akulova" Berberis darwinii (Darwin barberry) is a shrub (family Berberidaceae ) with yellow-orange flowers and small spiny leaves found in the central and north coast ranges of California. It is native to southern South America. It favors forest and woodland habitats. It spreads via birds and other animals that eat the fruit, and may also be dispersed in garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/berteroa-incana-profile/Berteroa incana hoary alyssum WatchB*10511 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Berteroa-incana_John-Doyen.jpeg" "Photo courtesy John Doyen" Berteroa incana (hoary alyssum) is a hairy herb/ (family Brassicaceae) with a cluster of white flowers and grayish leaves found in the Central Valley, Modoc Plateau area and desert ranges of California. It is native to Eurasia. It favors grasslands and wetlands. It spreads via seeds and possibly suckers, and vegetatively resprouts from its base.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/brachypodium-distachyon-profile/Brachypodium distachyonBromus distachya (L.) Link., Trachynia distachya (L.) Link annual false-brome; false brome; purple false brome; stiff brome Moderate1137 4 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brachypodium-distachyon_annual-falsebrome_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Brachypodium distachyon (annual false-brome, false-brome, purple false-brome) is a winter annual grass (family Poaceae) that is locally abundant in certain areas of California, especially those with rocky soils.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/brachypodium-sylvaticum-profile/Brachypodium sylvaticum slender false-brome; false-brome ModerateA*9292 55 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brachypodium_sylvaticum_John_Beall-e1508440528240.jpg" "Photo courtesy John Beall" Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false-brome) is a perennial bunchgrass (family Poaceae) whose known distribution in California is currently limited to portions of San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties. Perennial false-brome was introduced to Oregon in 1930, where it spread rapidly in forests and upland prairies, especially along roadsides and trails. It forms a dense cover that may suppress forest regeneration, degrade wildlife habitat, and increase fire risks. In California it has invaded redwood groves, and there is concern that it could damage this limited habitat type.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/brassica-nigra-profile/Brassica nigraSinapis nigra (L.) black mustard Moderate1144 108 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brassica-nigra-Bommer-Trail-3-3-12-8.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brassica-nigra_Black-Mustard_flower-JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brassica-nigra_Black-Mustard_plants_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff","Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso","Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Brassica nigra (black mustard) is a winter annual herb/forb (family Brassicaceae). Like other mustards, black mustard grows profusely and produces allelopathic chemicals that prevent germination of native plants. The spread of black mustard can increase the frequency of fires in chaparral and coastal sage scrub, changing these habitats to annual grassland.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/brassica-rapa-profile/Brassica rapaBrassica campestris L. field mustard; turnip Limited1145 109 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brassica-rapa_Birdsrape-mustard_flowers_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Brassica rapa (birdsrape mustard, field mustard) is a winter annual herb (family Brassicaceae) located throughout California. Birdsrape is resistant to frost and mild freezes and is an aggressive plant that grows profusely and may produce allelopathic chemicals that inhibit germination of native plants. Buried seeds can survive 50 years or more.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/brassica-tournefortii-profile/Brassica tournefortii Sahara mustard; Morrocan mustard; Asian mustard HighC1146 110 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Brassica-tournefortii_Saharan-mustard_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Brassica tournefortii (Saharan mustard or African mustard) is a winter annual (family Brassicaceae) found in deserts, desert dunes, and coastal scrub, including the San Joaquin Valley, Sonoran and Mojave Deserts, and southwestern region of California. Saharan mustard readily invades newly burned areas, and is known to increase fire frequency and fuel load. Increased fire frequency can cause scrub habitats to convert to grasslands because the native shrubs are not adapted to recurrent fires. The high biomass of Saharan mustard, along with frequent fires, may deplete soils of important nutrients, making native habitat recovery more difficult.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/briza-maxima-profile/Briza maxima big quakinggrass; rattlesnake grass; large quakinggrass, Limited1165 157 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Briza-maxima_-big-quaking-grass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Briza maxima (big quaking grass, rattlesnake grass) is a winter annual grass (family Poaceae) and is located throughout the coastal ranges of California. It is, on occasion, grown for its ornamental panicles but has spread into many grassland regions where it can be the dominant species.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bromus-diandrus-profile/Bromus diandrusB. rigidus, B. rigidus var gussonei, B. gussonei ripgut brome; great brome; ripgut grass Moderate1200 111 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bromus-diandrus_ripgut-brome_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Bromus diandrus (ripgut brome) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) found throughout California and other western states. Ripgut brome is one of several European annual grasses that have displaced much of the native grass throughout California. Ripgut brome becomes very dry and flammable during the dry season, increasing wildfire frequency. Increased wildfire frequency leads to conversion of shrubland and woodland to grassland. Ripgut brome is reported to hybridize with two other invasive grasses: downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus madritensis). Brome seeds may spread great distances via water and soil movement and by clinging to animals and people.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bromus-hordeaceus-profile/Bromus hordeaceusBromus confertus Boreau. (B. racemosus and B. scoparious mistakenly used in some older references) soft brome; soft chess; lopgrass Limited1202 112 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bromus-hordeaceus_soft-brome_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) distributed at low elevation areas in California, especially in disturbed and open areas. Bromus hordeaceus out competes native grasses and is commonly eaten by range animals, although its forage value is very low. It can invade soils with low fertility, such as the serpentine soils that are home to rare plant species.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bromus-japonicus-profile/Bromus japonicusBromus abolini Drob., Bromus chiapporianus de Not. Ex Nyman, Bromus commutatus Schrad., Bromus cyri Trin., Bromus gedrosianus Penzes, Bromus japonicus ssp. anatolicus (Boiss. & Heldr.) Penzes, Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murr. var. porectus Hack., Bromus japonicus var. susquarrosus (Borb.) Savul. & Rays, Bromus multiflorus DC. ex Lam. & DC, Bromus patulus Mert. & Koch, Bromus pendulus Schur. Bromus unilateralis Schur., Bromus vestitus Schrad. Japanese brome; Japanese chess Limited1205 5 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bromus_japonicus_JDiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bromus_japonicus_Japanese-brome_Patrick-Alexander_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Bromus_japonicus, Japanese brome, inflorescence. Photo: Patrick Alexander"

Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome, Japanese chess) is a cool season annual grass (family Poaceae) commonly found in Northern California. This grass out-competes native grasses in areas where grazing and fire have been reduced.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bromus-madritensis-ssp-rubens-profile/Bromus madritensis ssp. rubensBromus rubens red brome; foxtail chess High1209 6 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Bromus-madritensis_red-brome_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (=B. rubens) (red brome) is a cool-season annual grass (family Poaceae) found throughout California, especially in the southern part of the state. Red brome invades disturbed areas, roadsides, agricultural fields, rangelands, and forestry sites, in addition to native communities. Red brome is spreading rapidly in desert shrublands, pinyon pine-juniper communities, three-needle pine woodlands, and coastal scrub, where it increases fire frequency and converts habitat to annual grassland.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/bromus-tectorum-profile/Bromus tectorum cheatgrass; downy brome HighC1218 113 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Bromus-tectorum_cheatgrass_JoeDiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae). It is the dominant grass on sagebrush (Artemisia species) rangelands on the Modoc Plateau in northeastern California and along the eastern Sierra Nevada to Owens Valley. This weed overcrowds native grasslands and croplands. Replacement of native grasses by cheatgrass increases the frequency and extent of wildfires.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/buddleja-davidii-profile/Buddleja davidii butterfly bush Watch1222 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Buddleja-davidii_Louis-M.-Landry.jpeg" "Photo courtesy Louis M. Landry" Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) is a shrub (family Buddlejaceae) with a cluster of pink to purple flowers and narrow leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and coastal ranges of California, and is invasive in the Pacific Northwest. It is native to China. It favors riparian and bottomland habitat. It is highly regenerative and can spread via dumped garden waste. Seeds are retained on the plant over the winter and they are released in early spring or summer. Seed dispersal can start in late autumn or early winter.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cakile-maritima-profile/Cakile maritima European sea rocket Limited1233 159 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cakile-maritima-by-Waen.jpg" "Photo by Waen, via Wikimedia Commons"

Cakile maritima (European sea-rocket) is a succulent annual or perennial (family Brassicaceae) found in coastal dunes spread throughout the coast of California. European sea-rocket is a common invasive plant, but its impacts appear to be relatively minor. European sea-rocket reproduces by seed, which is distributed by ship ballasts, sand transport, tidal movement, and human activity. In comparison to native dune plants, it produces more seed, disperses greater distances, and tolerates more disturbances. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the plant may have allelopathic effects, but these effects have not been observed in field experiments.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carduus-acanthoides-profile/Carduus acanthoidesCarduus fortior plumeless thistle; bristly thistle; giant plumeless thistle; spiny thistle LimitedA*1502 161 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carduus-acanthoides_Plumeless-Thistle__flower_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Carduus acanthoides (plumeless thistle) is a tall biennial (family Asteraceae) with spiny leaves that colonizes disturbed open sites, roadsides, pastures, annual grasslands, and waste areas. It can inhibit growth of native plants in its vicinity. Plumeless thistle is uncommon in California, and the California Department of Food and Agriculture has an active program to control known populations.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carduus-nutans-profile/Carduus nutans musk thistle; giant plumeless thistle; nodding (plumeless) thistle; ModerateA*1503 8 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carduus-nutans_Musk-Thistle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Carduus nutans (musk thistle) is a biennial or winter annual (family Asteraceae) found in disturbed open sites, roadsides, pastures, annual grasslands, and waste areas, but is mostly limited to the Klamath and Cascade Ranges, northern Sierra Nevada, and Modoc Plateau in California. Previous populations in southern California were eradicated.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carduus-pycnocephalus-profile/Carduus pycnocephalus Italian thistle ModerateC*1504 9 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carduus-pycnocephalus_Italian-thistle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle) is a winter annual forb (family Asteraceae) widely distributed in disturbed open sites, roadsides, pastures, annual grasslands, and waste areas in much of California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carduus-tenuiflorus-profile/Carduus tenuiflorus slenderflower thistle; Italian thistle; multiheaded thistle; seaside thistle; shore thistle; winged plumeless thistle LimitedC*1505 9 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carduus-tenuiflorus_slenderflower-thistle_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Carduus tenuiflorus (slender flowered thistle) is a tall annual or biennial (family Asteraceae) located along the California coast and in the Central Valley and Sierra foothill grasslands. It is similar in appearance and habitat to Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus), but is less widely distributed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carex-pendula-profile/Carex pendula hanging sedge Watch10523 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carex-pendula_Dean-Wm.-Taylor_-Ph.D-1.jpeg" "Photo by Dean W. Taylor" Carex pendula (hanging sedge) is a sedge (family Cyperaceae) that can grow to be more than 6 feet tall and is found in the San Francisco Bay area and Sacramento Valley in California. It has red-brown to purple tips. It is native to Europe. It spreads via rhizomes and seeds. One plant can produce 20,000 seeds with a 90% germination rate. It favors forest and riparian and bottomland habitat.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carpobrotus-chilensis-profile/Carpobrotus chilensisMesembryanthemum chilensis, Carpobrotus mellei, Carpobrotus aequilaterus sea fig; iceplant Moderate1659 58 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carpobrotus-chilensis_sea-fig_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso"

Carpobrotus chilensis (sea-fig, iceplant) is a succulent shrub (family Aizoaceae) found throughout coastal California and the Channel Islands, especially in areas with a warm winter climate. Carpobrotus chilensis may have been introduced during early Spanish settlement. It now inhabits coastal scrub, grasslands, chaparral, bluffs, dunes and beaches, where it creates dense mats that increase soil organic matter over time, allowing new non-native species to invade. Sea-fig propagates by seed and vegetatively. Even small stem fragments can regenerate into a new plant, making control difficult.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carpobrotus-edulis-profile/Carpobrotus edulis highway iceplant High1660 59 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carpobrotus-edulis_hottentot-fig_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Carpobrotus edulis (Hottentot-fig or iceplant) is a succulent shrub (family Aizoaceae) found throughout coastal California and the Channel Islands, especially in areas with a warm winter climate. Introduced as an ornamental plant, Carpobrotus edulis now inhabits coastal scrub, grasslands, chaparral, bluffs, dunes and beaches where it creates dense mats that increase soil organic matter over time, allowing new non-native species to invade. Carpobrotus edulis propagates by seed and vegetatively. Even small stem fragments can regenerate into a new plant, making control difficult.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carrichtera-annua-profile/Carrichtera annuaVella annua Ward's weed ModerateA11209 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carrichtera-annua_Flora-y-Vegetacion-Wikimedia.jpeg" "Photo courtesy Wikimedia" Carrichtera annua (Ward\'s weed) is an annual herb (family Brassicaceae ) with white to yellow flowers and hairy lobed leaves found in the south coast ranges of California. It is native to the Mediterranean and southwestern Asia. It favors grasslands and scrub and chaparral habitat. It reproduces by seed only. Seeds are dispersed by foraging animals, vehicles, agricultural activities and humans.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/carthamus-lanatus-profile/Carthamus lanatusCarthamus lanatus ssp. lanatus woolly distaff thistle; false starthistle; saffron thistle; woolly safflower; woolly starthistle HighB*1662 10 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Carthamus-lanatus_Woolly-distaff-thistle_flowerhead_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Carthamus lanatus (woolly distaff thistle) is a winter annual forb (family Asteraceae) found in disturbed open sites, roadsides, pastures, annual grasslands, and waste areas. Its spiny foliage can injure livestock. It is primarily found in the northern coast ranges of California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/casuarina-equisetifolia-profile/Casuarina equisetifolia beach sheoak Watch12345 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Casuarina-equisetifolia_Zoya-Akulova.jpeg" "Photo by Zoya Akulova" Casuarina equisetifolia (beach sheoak) is an evergreen tree (family Casuarinaceae) with tiny red flowers and needle-like leaves found in the Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay area, south coast ranges and desert ranges of California. It has both female and male flower parts. It is native to northern Australia and Southeast Asia. It occurs in dunes. It freely self-seeds in disturbed areas. Migrating gold finches, parrots and parakeets feed on the seeds and disperse them. Wind also disperses the winged seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/catharanthus-roseus-profile/Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle Watch1739 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Catharanthus_roseus-by-Joy-Deep.jpg" "Photo by Joy Deep" Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is a herb/ (family Apocynaceae) with pink flowers and oval shaped leaves found in the south coast and desert ranges of California. It is native to Madagascar. It favors dunes, grasslands, and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads via seeds and is easily cultivated. Seeds are dispersed by ants, water, wind and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cenchrus-echinatus-profile/Cenchrus echinatus Southern sandbur WatchB*1840 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cenchrus-echinatus_C182-01.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Cenchrus echinatus (Southern sandbur) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) that can grow up to 30 inches tall and is found in the San Francisco Bay area and the south coast and desert ranges of California. It is native to the southern United States, Mexico, Central America and South America. It favors grasslands and dunes. It spreads via seeds which can attach to clothing or animals and can be carried by wind or water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cenchrus-longispinus-profile/Cenchrus longispinus mat sandbur WatchB*1842 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cenchrus-longispinus_longspine-sandbur_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "" Cenchrus longispinus (mat sandbur) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) that can grow up to 2 feet tall and is found in the Central Valley, Modoc Plateau area, and the south coast and desert ranges of California. It is native to the central and eastern United States. It favors grasslands and dunes. It reproduces by seeds which disperse by clinging to animals, shoes, clothing, machinery and floating on water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-calcitrapa-profile/Centaurea calcitrapa purple starthistle ModerateB*1845 60 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-calcitrapa_purple-starthistle_flowering-head_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Centaurea calcitrapa (purple starthistle) grows as an annual, biennial or perennial (family Asteraceae) in fields, roadsides, disturbed open sites, grasslands, overgrazed rangelands, and logged areas in the northern and central coast ranges of California. Centaurea species may produce allelopathic effects and are highly competitive with other plants, often displacing desired vegetation.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-diffusa-profile/Centaurea diffusaAcosta diffusa (Lam.) Sojak diffuse knapweed ModerateA*1847 11 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-diffusa_diffuse-knapweed_flowerheads_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) is usually a biennial plant (family Asteraceae) that forms dense infestations. Seeds disperse when stems break off and tumble in the wind. Diffuse knapweed is not very common in California, but is one of the most invasive species in many other western states.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-diluta-profile/Centaurea diluta North African knapweed Watch1848 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centauria-diluta_C031-31.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Centaurea diluta (North African knapweed) is an annual herb/ (family Asteraceae) with pink-purple flowers and lobed leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and south coast ranges of California. It is native to southwestern Europe. It favors grasslands. Its hairy seeds are dispersed via wind. It was said to have been introduced to Great Britain as a contaminant in bird seed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-jacea-ssp-pratensis-profile/Centaurea jacea ssp. pratensisCentaurea debeauxii Gren. & Godr., Centaurea x pratensis; Centaurea jacea L. x Centaurea nigra L. meadow knapweed ModerateA*13132 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-debeauxii-ssp.-thuillierii_meadow-knapweed_Joseph-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Centaurea jacea ssp. pratensis (=Centaurea debeauxii or C. jacea x C. nigra or C. x pratensis) (meadow knapweed) is a bushy perennial (family Asteraceae) found in a small number of disturbed areas in Siskiyou, Del Norte, and Humboldt Counties in northwestern California. Meadow knapweed reproduces by seed and via shoots from the parent plant, and is known to resprout from root fragments after cultivation. The seeds can also be spread by irrigation systems and vehicles. Meadow knapweed spreads very rapidly and is listed as a noxious weed in several western states as well as California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-melitensis-profile/Centaurea melitensis tocalote; Malta starthistle ModerateC*1851 13 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-melitensis_malta-starthistle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Centaurea melitensis (Malta starthistle, tocalote) is a bushy annual (family Asteraceae) found throughout most of California and in many other western states. Malta starthistle prefers disturbed and open areas, including grasslands, open woodlands, agricultural fields and roadsides. It is most invasive in California’s central western and southwestern regions. While Malta starthistle is less invasive than yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), but it still spreads quickly by producing great quantities of seed if given the proper conditions. Insects such as the false peacock fly (Chaetorellia succinea) and hairy weevil (Eustenopus villosus) have been used as biological controls with some success.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-solstitialis-profile/Centaurea solstitialis yellow starthistle HighC*1853 14 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-solstitialis_yellow-starthistle_flowerhead_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-solstitialis_yellow-starthistle_-Bob-Case_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Bob Case","Centaurea solstitialis, yellow starthistle, seedlings. Photo: Bob Case" Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is a bushy winter annual (family Asteraceae) that invades 12 million acres in California. Yellow starthistle inhabits open hills, grasslands, open woodlands, fields, roadsides, and rangelands, and it is considered one of the most serious rangeland weeds in the state. It propagates rapidly by seed, and a large plant can produce nearly 75,000 seeds. Several insects from the Mediterranean region, including weevils and flies, have been employed as biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle with minor success.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-stoebe-profile/Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthosCentaurea maculosa; Centaurea biebersteinii, Centaurea stoebe ssp. stoebe and ssp. maculosa; Centaurea stoebe subsp. australis spotted knapweed HighA*9791 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-stoebe-ssp.-micranthos_-spotted-knapweed_Bob-Case_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Bob Case" Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos (spotted knapweed) is a biennial to short-lived perennial (family Asteraceae). It can be found in disturbed open sites, grasslands, overgrazed rangelands, roadsides and logged areas. It crowds out native species and forage for livestock, and can invade undisturbed native bunchgrass stands. An individual plant may produce as many as 40,000 seeds. Jepson Manual, 2nd Edition: Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/centaurea-virgata-var-squarrosa-profile/Centaurea virgata var. squarrosaCentaurea squarrosa Willd. is an illegally applied name according to the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Saint Louis Code) since the name Centaurea squarrosa Roth was previously applied to a different species. Centaurea virgata Lam. var. squarrosa (Willd.) Boiss. is a synonym of Centaurea squarrosa Willd. Some taxonomists are using the name C. triumfetti All. for diffuse knapweed. Some flora use C. virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler, but the taxon was given variety ranking first. squarrose knapweed ModerateA*11498 62 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Centaurea-virgata-var.-squarrosa_squarrose-knapweed_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa (squarrose knapweed) is a perennial (family Asteraceae) found in the Klamath and Cascade Ranges, Modoc Plateau and northern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Squarrose knapweed favors disturbed open sites, including degraded rangeland, logged areas, grasslands and roadsides. Squarrose knapweed seed dispersal is enhanced by soil and water movement, and by clinging to humans and animals. Seed dispersal and reproduction can be limited by mowing or mechanical removal of plants before seed-set. Squarrose knapweed is a listed noxious weed in several western states.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cestrum-parqui-profile/Cestrum parqui willow jessamine Watch8746 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cestrum-parqui_willow-jessamine_Mike-Perlmutter_cropped.jpeg" "Photo: Mike Perlmutter" Cestrum parqui (willow jessamine) is a tree (family Solanaceae) with yellow flowers and narrow leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and south coast ranges of California. It is native to South America. It favors grasslands. It spreads via seeds and root suckers. Seeds are dispersed by birds, water and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/chasmanthe-floribunda-profile/Chasmanthe floribunda African cornflag Watch1951 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Chasmanthe-floribunda_Tony-Morosco.jpeg" "Photo by Tony Morosco" Chasmanthe floribunda (African cornflag) is a perennial herb/ (family Iridaceae) with red flowers and long narrow leaves found in the coastal ranges, San Francisco Bay area and southwestern ranges of California. It is native to southern Africa. It favors dunes, scrub and chaparral habitats. It reproduces by corms which multiply rapidly. Seeds are dispersed by birds and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/chondrilla-juncea-profile/Chondrilla juncea skeleton weed; devil's grass; hogbite; gum succory; naked weed ModerateA*2010 15 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Chondrilla-juncea_rush-skeletonweed_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) is a perennial or biennial forb (family Asteraceae) and can be found scattered throughout California but is considered an uncommon weed. It can grow in disturbed soils of roadsides, croplands, especially irrigated grain fields, semi-arid pastures, rangelands, and residential properties. Plants are highly competitive for water and nutrients.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/chrysanthemoides-monilifera-ssp-monilifera-profile/Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. moniliferaOsteospermum moniliferum boneseed; Higgin's curse; jungle flower; ModerateA11504 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Chrysanthemoides-monilifera-ssp.-monilifera-by-Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (boneseed) is a shrub (family Asteraceae) with yellow flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the south coast ranges of California. It is native to southern Africa. It favors grasslands and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads by seeds which travel via water, machinery, birds and other animals.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cirsium-arvense-profile/Cirsium arvense Canada thistle ModerateB*2118 16 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cirsium-arvense_-Canada-thistle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) is a perennial (family Asteraceae) found scattered throughout California, except in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts and the southern Sierra Nevada. Canada thistle forms dense patches which may crowd out native vegetation. This clump-forming plant reproduces by seed and vegetatively from its extensive root system. Control is difficult because root fragments as small as 1 cm can sprout to form a new plant, and seeds are dispersed by small animals, wind and human activities. Occasional cultivation may increase Canada thistle populations by dispersing root fragments, but control can be achieved with continued cultivation, mowing or hand-cutting.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cirsium-vulgare-profile/Cirsium vulgareCarduus lanceolatus, Cirsium lanceolatum bull thistle ModerateC*2151 17 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cirsium-vulgare_bull-thistle_flowering-stem_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) is a perennial or biennial forb (family Asteraceae) Bull thistle is widespread in California and is most common in coastal grasslands, along edges of fresh and brackish marshes, and in meadows and mesic forest openings in the mountains below 7,000 feet (2,120 m). It is most troublesome in recently or repeatedly disturbed areas such as pastures, overgrazed rangelands, recently burned forests and forest clearcuts, and along roads, ditches, and fences. Besides out-competing native plant species for water, nutrients, and space, the presence of bull thistle in hay decreases feeding value and lowers market price.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/clematis-vitalba-profile/Clematis vitalbaAnemone vitalba old man's beard; traveler's joy ModerateA8710 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Clematis-vitalba_Dr.-Amadej-Trnkoczy.jpeg" "Photo by Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy" Clematis vitalba (old man\'s beard) is a vine (family Ranunculaceae) with white flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the central coast ranges of California. It is native to the United Kingdom. It favors forests and woodlands. It spreads via seeds and roots. Means of dispersal include water, wind, humans and animals.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/colocasia-esculenta-profile/Colocasia esculentaArum esculentum; Caladium esculentum; Colocasia antiquorum taro root; wild taro; coco-yam; eddo; elephant-ear-plant ModerateD13042 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Colocasia-esculenta_Moorea-Biocode.jpeg" "Photo by Moorea Biocode" Colocasia esculenta (taro root) is a perennial herb (family Araceae) with yellow-orange flowers and large heart-shaped leaves found in the Central Valley of California. It is native to eastern Asia. It favors grasslands, wetlands, and bog and marsh habitat. It spreads via seeds and vegetative corms and is sometimes cultivated as a crop. Seeds are dispersed by water and agricultural activities.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/conicosia-pugioniformis-profile/Conicosia pugioniformisMesembryanthemum elongatum narriow-leafed iceplant; false iceplant; conicosia Limited2315 64 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Conicosia-pugioniformis_roundleaf-iceplant_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Conicosia pugioniformis (narrowleaf iceplant) is a succulent perennial (family Aizoaceae) found on dunes, beaches, scrub and grassland along the central coast of California, especially in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties. Narrowleaf iceplant does not form mats like other invasive iceplants (i.e., Carpobrotus edulis or C. chilensis) so its impacts are less severe. However, it can become locally abundant and crowd out native plants, especially in dune habitats. Narrowleaf iceplant reproduces by seed, and buried root crowns can resprout after aboveground plant matter has been removed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/conium-maculatum-profile/Conium maculatum poison-hemlock Moderate2317 18 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Conium-maculatum_poison-hemlock_plantb_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Conium-maculatum_poison-hemlock_Jutta-Burger_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Conium maculatum, poison-hemlock, young stem and root. Photo: Jutta Burger" Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) is a biennial forb (family Apiaceae). Poison-hemlock has spread throughout California in areas below 5,000 feet (1,500 m) elevation, excluding the Great Basin and Desert provinces and is commonly found in dense patches along roadsides and fields. It also thrives in meadows and pastures and is occasionally found in riparian forests and flood plains, but prefers disturbed areas. All parts of poison-hemlock are toxic to humans and animals when ingested; handling plants can cause contact dermatitis in some people. Poison-hemlock can spread quickly after the rainy season in areas that have been cleared or disturbed. Once established, it is highly competitive and prevents establishment of native plants by over-shading.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cortaderia-jubata-profile/Cortaderia jubataCortaderia atacamensis jubatagrass; pink pampasgrass HighB*2394 19 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cortaderia-jubata_jubata-grass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cortaderia jubata (jubatagrass) is a large perennial grass (family Poaceae) found along the coast of California and in the Coast Ranges. Jubatagrass favors dunes, bluffs, and disturbed areas, including inland areas where temperatures are moderated by fog. It was introduced as an ornamental plant and for erosion control. Each plume produces up to 100,000 seeds that are widely dispersed by wind and develop without fertilization. Jubatagrass quickly colonizes bare ground, but establishment is generally poor where the seedlings must compete with other grasses or sedges.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cortaderia-selloana-profile/Cortaderia selloana pampasgrass; white pampasgrass High2395 20 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cortaderia-selloana-Pampasgrass.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cortaderia selloana (pampasgrass) is a large perennial grass (family Poaceae) found along the coast of California, and in the Coast Ranges, Central Valley, Western Transverse Ranges, and Mojave Desert. Pampasgrass favors dunes, bluffs, coastal shrublands and marshes, inland riparian areas, and disturbed areas. It was introduced as an ornamental plant and for erosion control. Each plume produces up to 100,000 seeds that are widely dispersed by wind and develop without fertilization. Pampasgrass quickly colonizes bare ground, but establishment is generally poor where the seedlings must compete with other grasses or sedges.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cotoneaster-franchetii-profile/Cotoneaster franchetii orange cotoneaster; cotoneaster; Francheti cotoneaster Moderate2401 163 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cotoneaster-franchetii_orange-cotoneaster_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cordyline australis (orange cotoneaster) is an evergreen shrub (family Rosaceae) found in the northwest and central west regions of California. Orange cotoneaster, which has pink flowers and orange fruits, was introduced from China in 1854 as an ornamental plant, and has escaped cultivation. It is found in disturbed places, especially near residential sites, as well as in undisturbed scrub, grassland and forests. Each plant can produce thousands of fruits every year, which are distributed by birds, small mammals, water movement and human activities. Mechanical removal of the shrubs can provide good control, but follow-up is needed, as the plants may resprout from the roots.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cotoneaster-lacteus-profile/Cotoneaster lacteusCotoneaster parneyi milkflower cotoneaster; Parney's cotoneaster Moderate8714 164 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cotoneaster_lacteus_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Cotoneaster lacteus (Parney’s cotoneaster) is an evergreen shrub (family Rosaceae) found along the central and north coast of California. Parney’s cotoneaster, which has white flowers and red fruits, was introduced from China as an ornamental plant, and has escaped cultivation. It is found in disturbed places, especially near residential sites, as well as undisturbed coastal scrub, grassland and forests. Each plant can produce thousands of fruits every year, which are distributed by birds, small mammals, water movement and human activities. Mechanical removal of the shrubs can provide good control, but follow-up is needed, as the plants may resprout from the roots.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cotoneaster-pannosus-profile/Cotoneaster pannosusC. pannosus Franch. silverleaf cotoneaster; velvet cotoneaster Moderate2402 165 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cotoneaster_pannosus_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cotoneaster pannosus (silverleaf cotoneaster) is an evergreen shrub (family Rosaceae) found along the central and north coast of California, as well as in the northern South Coast Ranges and the Transverse Ranges. Silverleaf cotoneaster, with white flowers and red fruits, was introduced from China as an ornamental plant, and has escaped cultivation. It is found in disturbed places, especially near residential sites, as well as undisturbed coastal scrub, grassland and forests. Each plant can produce thousands of fruits every year, which are distributed by birds, small mammals, water movement and human activities. Mechanical removal of the shrubs can provide good control, but follow-up is needed, as the plants may resprout from the roots.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cotula-coronopifolia-profile/Cotula coronopifoliaLancisia coronopifolia common brassbuttons Limited2404 166 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cotula_coronopifolia_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Cotula coronopifolia (brassbuttons) is a perennial herb (family Asteraceae) found along the coast of California, in the Central Valley and the South Coast Ranges. Brassbuttons prefers moist habitat, including salt and freshwater marshes, wetlands, and vernal pools. It most commonly invades disturbed sites, but can spread into undisturbed sites as well. This South African native has flat yellow flower heads that produce small seeds, which are distributed by moving water and birds. Its stems grow roots at the nodes, allowing the plant to reproduce vegetatively. Although brassbuttons is known to be invasive, its spread appears to be relatively slow.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/crataegus-monogyna-profile/Crataegus monogynaCrataegus apiifolia, C. curvisepala, C. dissecta, C. oxyancanthana, C. oxyacantha var. monogyna, C. oxyacantha v. paulii, Mespilus monogyna, Oxyacantha apiifolia, others. English hawthorn; common hawthorn; oneseed hawthorn; May tree; singleseed hawthorn; azzarola; neapolitan medlar; oneseed hawthorn; whitethorn; Limited8429 167 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Crataegus-monogyna_English-hawthorn_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Crataegus monogyna (English hawthorn) is a deciduous shrub or small tree (family Rosaceae) found in California along the north and central coast and in the North Coast Ranges. English hawthorn was introduced to California as a landscape ornamental. It has escaped cultivation, growing in moist soil in riparian areas, woodlands and grasslands. At about 10 years of age, the trees begin to produce bright red fruits that are consumed by birds and other animals, who distribute its seeds. The seeds may also be dispersed by human activity or soil and water movement. Effective control may be achieved by manually removing seedlings, cutting down the trees and either removing their roots or painting the trunk with herbicide.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/crocosmia-x-crocosmiiflora-profile/Crocosmia x crocosmiifloraderived from C. pottsii X C. aurea; Tritonia X crocosmiiflora montbretia Limited2431 168 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Crocosmia_x_crocosmiflora-by-Ken-Pei.jpg" "Photo by Ken Pei" Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (crocosmia or montbretia) is a perennial (family Iridaceae) found along the coast of California and in the San Francsico Bay region. Crocosmia is a commonly cultivated ornamental plant, and is most commonly found near urban areas. It prefers disturbed areas, including roadsides, coastal scrub, prairie and forests. Crocosmia is a superior competitor for water, light and nutrients, and it excludes native plants by growing in dense patches. It reproduces using seeds and underground corms. Upon introduction to a new area, crocosmia spreads slowly at first, then more rapidly as the species becomes established.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/crupina-vulgaris-profile/Crupina vulgaris common crupina LimitedA*2437 169 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Crupina-vulgaris_Common-crupina_flowering-stem_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Crupina-vulgaris_common-crupina_BobCase_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Crupina vulgaris, common crupina, seeds and buds. Photo: BobCase" Crupina vulgaris (common crupina, bearded creeper) is a winter annual forb (family Asteraceae) located in Sonoma and Modoc counties where they are found on grassy sites, rangelands, forested areas, and roadsides. Crupina vulgaris reduces forage for grazing animals. It is a bigger problem in other western states and its current distribution in California have been kept in check.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cynara-cardunculus-profile/Cynara cardunculus artichoke thistle; cardoon; wild artichoke ModerateB*2568 65 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cynara-cardunculus_artichoke-starthistle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cynara cardunculus (artichoke thistle) is a large perennial thistle (family Asteraceae) found below 500 m elevations throughout California, except in the Great Basin and Desert Regions. Artichoke thistle prefers disturbed open sites, including grassland, chaparral, coastal scrub, and riparian areas. This thistle is closely related to cultivated artichokes (Cynara scolymus), and the two species hybridize frequently. Artichoke thistle is also sometimes grown as an ornamental plant, and is available commercially. It reproduces by seed and sometimes by resprouting from root fragments. When attempting control by mechanical removal, most of the plant’s large taproot must be removed to avoid resprouting.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cynodon-dactylon-profile/Cynodon dactylon Bermuda grass; couch grass; devil grass; wire grass; vine grass ModerateD2570 114 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cynodon-dactylon_Bermudagrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) is a creeping perennial grass (family Poaceae) commonly used in garden plantings and as a turf species. However, it can escape cultivation and out-compete native species, particularly in riparian areas.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cynoglossum-officinale-profile/Cynoglossum officinale common houndstongue; beggar's-lice; dog bur; dog's tongue; glovewort; gypsyflower; sheelice; sticktight; woolmat Moderate2575 21 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cynoglossum-officinale_houndstongue_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Cynoglossum officinale (houndstongue) is a biennial forb (family Boraginaceae) whose foliage can be toxic to horses and other livestock when it contaminates hay. In California, it is found in the Cascade Ranges. The seeds have hooked projections that facilitate long distance dispersal by animals and humans.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cynosurus-echinatus-profile/Cynosurus echinatus hedgehog dogtail; annual dogtail; bristly dogtail grass; hedgehoggy Moderate2577 115 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cynosurus-echinatus_hedgehog-dogtail-grass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cynosurus echinatus (hedgehog dogtail grass) is a grass (family Poaceae) that flowers June through August and can be found at lower elevations along trails and disturbed areas in both open and wooded areas. It is distinguished by having awns and flowers that all point in one direction on the inflorescence.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cytisus-multiflorus-profile/Cytisus multiflorus white Spanish broom Watch2600 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cytisus-multiflorus_white-Spanish-broom_Xemenendura-Wikimedia_cropped-scaled.jpeg" "Photo: Xemenendura " Cytisus multiflorus (white Spanish broom) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with white flowers and tiny narrow leaves found in the Sierra Nevada and coastal ranges of California. It is native to Spain and Portugal. It favors woodlands and grasslands. It spreads via seeds which are explosively released from the parent plant. Seeds can be dispersed through dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cytisus-proliferus-profile/Cytisus proliferus tagasaste Watch11587 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cytisus-proliferus_Justin-M.-Wood.jpeg" "Photo by Justin M. Wood" Cytisus proliferus (tagasaste) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with white flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and south coast ranges of California. It is native to the Canary Islands. It occurs in dunes and grasslands. Its seeds spread via ants, birds, slashing, dumped garden waste and machinery. It also resprouts after fire.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cytisus-scoparius-profile/Cytisus scopariusSarathamnus scoparius, Spartium scoparius Scotch broom; English broom; common broom HighC*2601 22 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cytisus-scoparius_scotch-broom_flowers_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) is a perennial shrub (family Fabaceae), which grows in sunny sites with dry sandy soil, and spreads rapidly through pastures, borders of forests,  and roadsides. Cytisus scoparius can be found from the coast to the Sierra foothills. This weed crowds out native species, has a seedbank that can remain dormant for up to 80 years, diminishes habitat for grazing animals, and increases risk for wildland fires.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cytisus-striatus-profile/Cytisus striatusCytisus patens L., Cytisus pendulinus, Cytisus welwitschii, Genista striata, Sarthamnus eriocarpus, Sarothamnus patens sensu Webb Portugese broom; hairy-fruited broom ModerateB2602 23 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cytisus-striatus_Portuguese-broom_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Cytisus striatus (Portuguese broom) is a perennial shrub (family Fabaceae) found in the San Francisco Bay region, Peninsular Ranges and south coast of California. It is commonly found in coastal scrub and grasslands, where it is expected to continue to expand its range. Portuguese broom was introduced as a landscape ornamental, and is often confused with Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius). Broom is unpalatable to most livestock except goats, so it decreases rangeland value while increasing fire hazards. These leguminous plants produce copious amounts of seed, and may resprout from the root crown if cut or grazed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dactylis-glomerata-profile/Dactylis glomerata orchard grass Limited2603 24 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dactylis-glomerata_Orchardgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) is an aggressive perennial grass (family Poaceae) widespread throughout California. It grows in any type of soil, is drought resistant, and can overrun-some grasslands. Orchardgrass is a desirable pasture grass but has escaped cultivation in many natural areas throughout the United States.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/datura-inoxia-profile/Datura inoxia pricklyburr Watch9854 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Datura-inoxia_JM-Garg-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo courtesy Wikimedia" Datura inoxia (pricklyburr) is a herb/ (family Solanaceae) with large white flowers, broad leaves and prickly fruits found in the south and central western ranges of California. It is native to Mexico and Central America. It favors dunes and grasslands. It spreads via seed and rhizomes. Seeds are dispersed via ants, birds, animal fur and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/delairea-odorata-profile/Delairea odorataSenecio mikanioides Cape-ivy; German ivy; Italian ivy; ivy groundsel; parlor ivy; water ivy HighB*9623 66 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Delairea-odorata_cape-ivy_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Delairea-odorata_Cape-ivy_Bob-Case_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Delairea odorata, Cape-ivy, growth habit. Photo: Bob Case" Delairea odorata (=Senecio mikaniodes) (Cape-ivy, German-ivy) is a perennial vine (family Asteraceae) found along the coast of California and in the San Gabriel Mountains. Cape-ivy is especially problematic in coastal riparian areas, though it may also invade inland riparian areas, moist forests, and oak woodlands. Vines are known to form dense mats of vegetation over trees and shrubs, killing plants underneath. It is toxic to animals and fish can be killed when plant materials are soaking in waterways. Stem, rhizome and stolon fragments resprout if left in the ground after treatment. Can occasionally reproduce by seeds in some areas.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/descurainia-sophia-profile/Descurainia sophiaArabis sophia, Sisymbrium sophia tansy mustard, flixweed Limited2705 116 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Descurainia-sophia_tansy-mustard_Debra-L-1.jpg" "Photo courtesy Debra L. Cook" Descurainia sophia (flixweed) is an annual or biennial (family Brassicaceae) found throughout California along roadsides, in agricultural fields, disturbed desert areas, scrub, grasslands and woodlands. It is most common in the northeastern region, particular in the Great Basin. It tends to prefer well-drained sandy or stony soils. Flowering flixweed plants can be toxic to cattle when they are eaten over a long period of time. It produces abundant seed, which can be spread by soil or water movement, and by clinging to animals, humans and vehicle tires, but its rate of spread is relatively slow except in disturbed areas. Flixweed may invade recently disturbed areas and then become less dominant as native species become re-established.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/digitalis-purpurea-profile/Digitalis purpurea foxglove Limited2729 171 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Digitalis-purpurea_foxglove_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is an erect, knee-high to head-high herbaceous perennial (family Scrophulariaceae) found along the central and northern California coast and in Sierra Nevada foothills, infesting moist meadows and roadsides. All parts of the plant are toxic. It readily colonizes areas of soil disturbance, forming dense patches that displace natural vegetation.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dipogon-lignosus-profile/Dipogon lignosus Cape sweet pea, okie bean Watch9865 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dipogon-lignosus_Unknown-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo courtesy Wikimedia" Dipogon lignosus (Cape sweet pea) is a perennial vine (family Fabaceae) with pink flowers and broad triangular leaves found in the southwestern ranges of California. It is native to South Africa. It favors forests, woodlands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seeds and rhizomes. Seeds are dispersed via birds, water and possibly ants.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dipsacus-fullonum-profile/Dipsacus fullonumIn past was mistakenly called Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. in some references; binomial D. sylvestris Huds. has been used for wild teasel by majority of authors in N. America and the binomial D. fullonum L. reserved for the cultivated teasel- the opposite naming convention is used in Europe. common teasel; wild teasel; card thistle Moderate2737 25 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dipsacus_fullonum_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Dipsacus fullonum (common teasel) is a biennial forb/herb (family Dipsacaceae) sometimes used in flower arrangements, but was historically used as a hairbrush. It becomes a problem when it forms dense stands that are impenetrable to humans or livestock.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dipsacus-laciniatus-profile/Dipsacus laciniatus cutleaf teasel Watch "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dipsacus-laciniatus_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Dipsacus laciniatus (cutleaf teasel) is a herb/ (family Dipsacaceae) with small white flowers, finely lobed leaves and distinctively shaped fruits found in the southern ranges of Oregon. It is native to Europe and Asia. It favors grasslands. It spreads via seeds and regenerates after being cut. It is dispersed by machinery and birds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dipsacus-sativus-profile/Dipsacus sativusIn most of the literature used in this review, the teasels were described as a group, making very little distinction between D. sativus, D. fullonum, and D. sylvestris (name also used for D. fullonum); therefore information is largely identical. Further, according to personal observation by J.M. DiTomaso, in California, both D. fullonum and D. sativus occur in similar habitats and behave in a similar manner. Fuller's teasel Moderate2738 25 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dipsacus-sativus_Fullers-teasel_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Dipsacus sativus (Fuller\'s teasel) is a biennial (family Dipsacaceae) found in California’s Coastal and Peninsular Ranges and the San Francisco Bay area. It favors disturbed sites, including grasslands, roadsides, ditches and riparian sites. Fullers teasel’s spiny flower heads were used for carding wool before metal carding combs were created. Teasel plants may grow to form dense stands that are impenetrable by humans and animals. Teasel seeds can survive in the soil for 6 years or more, and once a dense population is established, it can persist for decades. Small populations may be mechanically controlled by removing plants to a few inches below the root crown.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dittrichia-graveolens-profile/Dittrichia graveolensInula graveolens, Erigeron graveolens, Cupularia graveolens stinkwort; stinkweed; Khaki weed; ModerateB*8482 26 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dittrichia-graveolens_stinkwort_flower-and-fruit_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Dittrichia graveolens (stinkwort) is a fall-flowering, sticky aromatic annual (family Asteraceae) that appears to be rapidly expanding its range in California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/dittrichia-viscosa-profile/Dittrichia viscosa false yellowhead WatchA13053 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dittrichia-viscosa_Richard-Spellenberg.jpeg" "Photo by Richard Spellenberg" Dittrichia viscosa (false yellowhead) is a perennial herb/subshrub (family Asteraceae) with golden-yellow flowers and thin toothed leaves found in the Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay area in California. It is native to the Mediterranean Basin. It favors grasslands, wetlands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces by seed and is spread primarily via wind and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/echium-candicans-profile/Echium candicansEchium branchyanthum Hornem., Echium cynoglossoides Desf., Echium densiflorum DC., Echium fastuosum auct. Non Dryander ex Aiton, Echium macrophyllum Lehm., Echium pallidum Salisb., a few others pride-of-Madeira Limited2888 118 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Echium-candicans_Pride-of-Madiera_plants_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Echium candicans (pride-of-Madeira) is a shrub (family Boraginaceae) found along the central and south coast of California, and in the San Francisco Bay region. This native to Madeira and the Canary Islands inhabits open coastal bluffs and hillsides. Pride-of-Madeira is a common landscape ornamental requiring a summer source of moisture in inland areas, but can escape cultivation in coastal regions. Little is known about the biology or invasiveness of pride-of-Madeira, but it appears to spread slowly into established native plant communities.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/echium-plantagineum-profile/Echium plantagineum Patterson's curse WatchA2890 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Echium-plantagineum_C070-06.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Echium plantagineum (Patterson\'s curse) is a herb/ (family Boraginaceae) with blue-purple to pink flowers and narrow leaves found in the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to the Mediterranean Basin. It occurs in grasslands. It reproduces by seed and is spread by grazing livestock, ants and birds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/egeria-densa-profile/Egeria densa Brazilian egeria; egeria HighC2893 67 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Egeria_BRice.jpg" "Photo courtesy Barry Rice/The Nature Conservancy"

Egeria densa (Brazilian egeria) is a common aquatic perennial (family Hydrocharitaceae) that occurs in lakes, springs, ponds, and streams. Its underwater growth significantly retards water flow and decreases reduces the abundance and diversity of native plant seeds in lake bottoms. It was introduced as a freshwater aquarium plant.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ehrharta-calycina-profile/Ehrharta calycinaAira capensis L.f., Ehrharta ascendens Schrad, E. auriculata Steud., E. geniculata (Thunb) Thunb., E. laxiflora Schrad., R. ovata Nees, E. paniculataSw.ex Poir, E. undulata Nees ex Trin., Melica festucoides Licht ex Trin., Melica geniculata Thunb., Trochera calycina (Sm. P. Beauv,) purple veldtgrass; African veldtgrass; perennial Veldt grass High2894 68 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ehrharta-calycina_purple-veldtgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Ehrharta calycina (purple veldtgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) found in disturbed grasslands, roadsides and coastal habitats in California’s south and central west regions. Purple veldtgrass is spreading very rapidly in the central coast region, where it invades dunes and shrublands. It was originally imported to California for use as a pasture grass and for erosion control. Purple veldtgrass displaces native vegetation and converts coastal scrub and chaparral communities to grasslands. It resprouts after fires and may increase fire frequency.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ehrharta-erecta-profile/Ehrharta erectaEhrharta panicea SM., E. paniciformis Nees ex Trin., Panicum deflexum Guss., Trochera panicea Baill panic veldtgrass; Ehrharta; Lamarck's ehrharta; panic veld grass; Stebbin's grass Moderate2895 69 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ehrharta-erecta_erect-velvetgrass_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Ehrharta erecta (erect veldtgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) found along California’s coastline and in the southern Sacramento Valley. Erect veldtgrass is commonly found in disturbed areas, including riparian areas, scrub, grassland, woodland, urban areas and turf. This native to South Africa was cultivated in Berkeley and Davis in the mid-1900s as an experimental grass. It spreads rapidly and is known to out-compete native grasses and herbs. Erect veldtgrass causes more litter accumulation than native grasses and herbs do, which further inhibits native plant growth.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ehrharta-longiflora-profile/Ehrharta longifloraannual veldtgrass long-flowered veldtgrass Limited8678 70 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ehrharta-longiflora_long-flowering-veldtgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Ehrharta longiflora (long-flowered veldtgrass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) found on California’s south coast, especially near San Diego. Long-flowered veldtgrass was recently introduced to California and is not currently widespread, but it has the potential to spread rapidly in coastal dune and scrub habitats. It may exclude native species in these habitats.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/eichhornia-crassipes-profile/Eichhornia crassipesEichhornia speciosa, Heteranthera formosa, Piaropus crassipes, Pontederia crassipes water hyacinth High2896 71 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Eichhornia_crassipes_-by-By-Wouter-Hagens.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Eichhornia-crassipes_water-hyacinth_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Wouter Hagens","Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, infestation. Photo: Bob Case" Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is a floating freshwater perennial (family Pontederiaceae) that jams rivers and lakes with tons of floating plant matter. Floating mats of this plant can weigh up to 200 tons per acre. In California, Eichhornia crassipes typically is found below 660 feet (200 m) elevation in the Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, and south coast.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/elaeagnus-angustifolia-profile/Elaeagnus angustifoliaElaeagnus angustifolius Russian olive; oleaster Moderate2897 119 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Elaeagnus-angustifolia_-Russian-olive_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian-olive) grows as a tree or shrub (family Elaeagnaceae) and is found in disturbed, seasonally moist places, generally below 5,000 feet (1500 m) elevation. It occurs in the San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, southern Sierra Nevada, San Diego County, and parts of the Mojave Desert near springs where it crowds out native species. It is able to regenerate under a wide variety of floodplain conditions with little or no mortality after seedling development. Native cottonwoods and willows, having narrow germination and establishment requirements and intolerant of shade, are unable to regenerate under advancing populations of Russian-olive.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/taeniatherum-caput-medusae-profile/Elymus caput-medusaeTaeniatherum caput-medusae medusahead HighC*11634 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Elymus-caput-medusae_medusahead_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Elymus-caput-medusae_medusahead_Bob-Case_cropped-1-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Bob Case","Elymus caput-medusae, medusahead, infestation. Photo: Bob Case" Elymus caput-medusae (medusahead) is a winter annual (family Poaceae) that typically invades disturbed sites, grasslands, openings in chaparral and oak woodlands. Taeniatherum caput-medusae out-competes native grasses and forbs and is found throughout northwestern California. After they set seed, medusahead plants persist as a dense litter layer that prevents germination and survival of native species, ties up nutrients, and contributes to fire danger in the summer.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/emex-spinosa-profile/Emex spinosaRumex spinosus devil's thorn; spiny threecornerjack Moderate2955 72 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Emex-spinosa-by-Ron-Vanderhoff-1.jpg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Emex spinosa (spiny emex, devil’s-thorn) is an annual (family Polygonaceae) found on California’s south coast. This Mediterranean native is not yet common in California, but it is spreading rapidly and is known to crowd out native species. It frequently infests disturbed areas, especially in coastal habitats. Emex spinosa’s spiny seed pods stick to people and animals, so it spreads quickly along trails and then into undisturbed areas.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/erica-lusitanica-profile/Erica lusitanica Spanish heath; Portuguese heath; urze LimitedB3070 3070 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Erica_lusitanica-Forest-and-Kim-Starr.jpg" "Photo courtesy Forest & Kim Starr CC-BY-3.0, via Wikimedia Commons" Erica lusitanica (Spanish heath) is a shrub or sub-shrub (family Ericaceae) that is native to southwest Europe. Erica lusitanica can be found in disturbed, open sandy areas. It has invaded Humboldt County where it forms large monocultures along the coast. E. lusitanica flowers from winter to spring. It has shown quick recovery from fire.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/erodium-cicutarium-profile/Erodium cicutarium redstem filaree; redstem stork's bill; filaree Limited3448 173 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Erodium-cicutarium_redstem-filaree_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Erodium cicutarium (redstem filaree) is an aggressive annual/biannual (family Geraniaceae) that is very widespread throughout California and is commonly found along roadsides, grasslands, fields, and semi-desert areas. It often carpets large areas, out-competing native grasses and forbs.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/eucalyptus-camaldulensis-profile/Eucalyptus camaldulensis red gum; river red gum; Red River gum Limited3531 120 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Eucalyptus_camaldulensis_MBrunell.jpg" "Photo courtesy Dr. Mark Brunell"

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum) is a tree (family Myrtaceae) found in southern California. Eucalyptus camaldulensis increases risk of catastrophic wildland fires and over-crowds native plants and trees.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/eucalyptus-cladocalyx-profile/Eucalyptus cladocalyx sugargum Watch3533 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Eucalyptus_cladocalyx_leaves_and_bark-by-Bidgee.jpg" "Photo by Bidgee, via Wikimedia Commons" Eucalyptus cladocalyx (sugargum) is a tree (family Myrtaceae) with white flowers and narrow leaves found in the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to Southern Australia. It favors woodlands and grasslands. It propagates via seeds and is dispersed by wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/eucalyptus-globulus-profile/Eucalyptus globulusEucalyptus maidenii subsp. globulus (Labill.) J.B.Kirkp. blue gum; Tasmanian blue gum; blue gum eucalyptus; common eucalyptus; Southern blue gum; Victorian blue gum Limited3534 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Eucalyptus-globulus_Tasmanium-blue-gum_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) is a tree (family Myrtaceae) found throughout California, but has primarily escaped to become invasive along the coast. It has effects on fire danger, native plants, and wildlife.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/euphorbia-lathyris-profile/Euphorbia lathyris caper spurge Watch3557 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Euphorbia-lathyris_C118-01.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Euphorbia lathyris (caper spurge) is a herb/ (family Euphorbiaceae) with green-yellow flowers and thin narrow leaves found in the coastal ranges, western ranges, the Central Valley, and desert ranges of California. It is native to Europe. It occurs in grasslands, marshes, dunes, scrub and chaparral habitats. It spreads via seed and is dispersed by water, machinery and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/euphorbia-oblongata-profile/Euphorbia oblongata eggleaf spurge; oblong spurge LimitedB*3559 74 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Euphorbia-oblongata_oblong-splurge_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Euphorbia-oblongata_eggleaf-spurge_Bob-Case_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Euphorbia oblongata, eggleaf spurge, leaves, fruits, flowers. Photo: Bob Case" Euphorbia oblongata (oblong spurge) is an perennial forb/herb (family Euphorbiaceae) found sporadically in California. This plant may be toxic to humans. It is inedible to wildlife and inhibits the growth of surrounding plants.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/euphorbia-terracina-profile/Euphorbia terracina carnation spurge; Geraldton carnationweed LimitedB*8565 75 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Euphorbia-terracina_carnation-spurge_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Euphorbia terracina (carnation spurge) is a perennial or biennial species(family Euphorbiaceae) found on California’s south coast. Carnation spurge forms dense patches in disturbed grasslands, coastal bluffs, dunes, salt marshes, riparian areas and oak woodlands. Although carnation spurge was recently introduced to California and is not yet widely distributed, it has the potential to spread rapidly. Like many other members of the spurge family, it produces toxic sap, and has allelopathic properties that reduce germination of native plants.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/euphorbia-esula-profile/Euphorbia virgataEuphorbia esula; Euphorbia discolor, Euphorbia virgata, Euphorbia gmelinii leafy spurge; faitours-grass; wolf's milk HighA*11684 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Euphorbia_virgata_by-Hermann-Schachner.jpg" "Photo by Hermann Schachner" Euphorbia virgata (leafy spurge) is a perennial (family Euphorbiaceae) rhizomatous erect herb. Euphorbia esula can be found in scattered locations throughout northern California and crowding out native plant species. It can invade and dominate a variety of vegetation types, including prairies, grasslands and pine savannahs.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/fallopia-xbohemica-profile/Fallopia ×bohemica Bohemian knotweed (X Japanese and Giant) WatchA*13358 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Fallopia_xbohemica_Bohemian-knotweed_John-Bailey_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: John Bailey" Fallopia ×bohemica (Bohemian knotweed (X Japanese and Giant knotweed) is a perennial (family Polygonaceae) with white flowers and broad leaves found in northwestern California. It is native to Japan. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via rhizomes and seeds and is dispersed along watercourses and in garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/fallopia-japonica-profile/Fallopia japonicaPolygonum cuspidatum; Reynoutria japonica, Fallopia baldschuanica Japanese knotweed; Mexican bamboo ModerateA*10891 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Fallopia-japonica_Japanese-knotweed_CDFA_cropped.jpg" "Photo: CDFA" Fallopia japonica (=Polygonum cuspidatum) (Japanese knotweed) is a perennial forb/herb (family Polygonaceae ). Plants grow vigorously and create dense colonies that exclude other vegetation. Established colonies are extremely difficult to eradicate. It inhabits disturbed moist sites, roadsides, riparian and wetland areas. Plants typically grow in open, sunny areas on moist soils in cool temperate climates. There is very little of this species in California, but it is spreading rapidly in the Northwest and has been a major problem in the southern and northern US, as well as Europe.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/polygonum-sachalinense-profile/Fallopia sachalinensisPolygonum sachalinense; Reynoutia sachalinensis giant knotweed; sakhalin knotweed; sacaline ModerateA*10892 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Fallopia-sachalinensis_giant-knotweed_CDFA_cropped.jpeg" "Photo: CDFA" Fallopia sachalinensis (Sakhalin knotweed) is a perennial forb/herb (family Polygonaceae). Plants grow vigorously and create dense colonies that exclude other vegetation. Established colonies are extremely difficult to eradicate. It inhabits disturbed moist sites, roadsides, riparian and wetland areas. Plants typically grow in open, sunny areas on moist soils in cool temperate climates. Very little of this species occurs in California. It is a much bigger problem in the Northwestern US.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/festuca-arundinacea-profile/Festuca arundinaceaBromus arundinaceus, Festuca elatior ssp. arundinacea, F. elatior var. arundinacea, Lolium arundinaceum reed fescue; alta fescue; coarse fescue; rescue; reed fescue; tall fescue; Kentucky fescue Moderate3576 122 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Festuca-arundinacea_tall-fescue_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) is a perennial grass with coarse foliage (family Poaceae) found throughout California except in the Great Basin and deserts. It favors sites with heavy soil, including grassland, coastal scrub, roadsides, ditches and other disturbed sites. Tall fescue is commonly planted for turf and hay or erosion control, but it has escaped cultivation and invaded wild areas. After tall fescue plants die, their leaves fall to the ground and create a thick thatch which prevents native plant seeds from germinating.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/vulpia-myuros-profile/Festuca myurosVulpia myuros rat-tail fescue; red-tailed fescue; sixweeksgrass; zorro annual fescue Moderate11689 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Festuca-myuros_rat-tail-fescue_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Festuca myuros (rattail fescue) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) widely distributed in California. This species is one of many introduced annual grasses that reduces habitat for native perennial grasses.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/festuca-perennis-profile/Festuca perennisLolium multiflorum; Lolium perenne Italian ryegrass Moderate11691 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lolium_multiflorum_JDiTomaso-e1510168593229.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Festuca perennis (Italian ryegrass) is an annual or biennial grass (family Poaceae) found throughout California except in the Great Basin and deserts. Italian ryegrass prefers areas with fertile, well-drained soils, including roadsides, fields, orchards and vineyards. Italian ryegrass is commonly cultivated for erosion control, pasture forage, and turf, but has escaped cultivation in many areas. Italian ryegrass is currently very widespread.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ficus-carica-profile/Ficus carica edible fig Moderate3592 76 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ficus-carica_Fig_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Ficus carica (edible fig) is a shrub to tree (family Moraceae). Research is underway to determine which cultivars of fig become invasive.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/foeniculum-vulgare-profile/Foeniculum vulgare fennel; sweet fennel; sweet anise Moderate3603 123 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Foeniculum-vulgare_-fennel_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) is an erect perennial herb (family Apiaceae). Although the plant is very common throughout the state, dense local populations have been reported from Santa Cruz Island, in fields around the San Francisco Bay region, Palos Verdes Peninsula (Los Angeles County), and Camp Pendleton (San Diego County). It can drastically alter the composition and structure of many plant communities, including grasslands, coastal scrub, riparian, and wetland communities. It is still unclear whether culinary varieties of fennel are invasive.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/galega-officinalis-profile/Galega officinalis professorweed WatchA*12523 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Galega-officinalis_Louis-M.-Landry.jpeg" "Photo by Louis M. Landry" Galega officinalis (professorweed) is a perennial /subshrub (family Fabaceae) with white to purple flowers and thin narrow leaves found in northwestern California. It is native to the Middle East. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces by seed and is spread in animal manure, irrigation water, and through agricultural activities.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/gazania-linearis-profile/Gazania linearisGazania longiscapa DC gazania; treasure flower Moderate3770 3770 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Gazania-linearis_gazania_Tony-Morosco_cropped.jpeg" "Photo: Tony Morosco" Gazania linearis (gazania) is a perennial herb (family Asteraceae) introduced as an ornamental plant. It has been reported escaping into creekside vegetation and into native grassland from plantings in San Francisco, Monterey, and Ventura Counties, where it can form a dense groundcover and outcompete other species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/genista-linifolia-profile/Genista linifolia Mediterranean broom Watch3772 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Genista-linifolia_Mediterranean-broom_CDFA.jpg" "Photo courtesy California Department of Food and Agriculture " Genista linifolia (Mediterranean broom) is a shrub (family Fabaceae) with yellow flowers and thin narrow leaves found in the Channel Islands and north and south coast ranges of California. It is native to the Canary Islands, western Mediterranean and northern Africa. It favors woodlands, grasslands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces via seed and is dispersed by animals, water, mud and machinery.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/retama-monosperma-profile/Genista monospermaRetama monosperma; Spartium monosperma, Lygos monosperma bridal veil broom ModerateB*8574 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Genista-monosperma_bridal-veil-broom_James-Gaither_cropped-scaled.jpg","" "Photo: James Gaither","Genista monosperma, bridal veil broom, close-up of flowers. Photo: James Gaither" Genista monosperma (bridal veil broom) is an escaped ornamental plant in the family Fabaceae. Although it is currently invasive in only one population in San Diego County, Cal-IPC lists it as an alert species due to its invasiveness in other areas with climates similar to California. In six years, this one infestation spread in size from approximately 1 acre (4 ha) to 1980 ac (800 ha). Like Scotch and French brooms, bridal veil broom can produce thousands of seeds per plant that may then be carried long distances by birds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/genista-monspessulana-profile/Genista monspessulanaCytisus monpsessulana, C. racemosus, C. canariensis, Gensita monspessulana, Teline monspessulana French broom; soft broom; canary broom; Montepellier broom HighC*3774 27 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Genista-monspessulana_French-broom_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Genista-monspessulana_French-broom_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Genista monspessulana, French broom, leaves, fruits, flowers. Photo: Bob Case" Genista monspessulana (French broom) is a perennial shrub (family Fabaceae) found in the Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada foothills, Transverse Ranges, Channel Islands and San Francisco Bay area. French broom was introduced as a landscape ornamental, along with Scotch and Spanish broom. French broom is an aggressive invader, forming dense stands that exclude native plants and wildlife. Broom is unpalatable to most livestock except goats, so it decreases rangeland value while increasing fire hazards. These leguminous plants produce copious amounts of seed, and may resprout from the root crown if cut or grazed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/geranium-dissectum-profile/Geranium dissectumGeranium laxum Hanks cutleaf geranium Limited3799 174 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Geranium-dissectum_-cutleaf-geranium_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Geranium dissectum (cutleaf geranium) is an annual or biennial forb/herb (family Geraniaceae) found throughout California along waste ground, grasslands, and hedge banks. It can compete with native vegetation for resources.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/geranium-lucidum-profile/Geranium lucidum shining geranium WatchA8593 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Geranium-lucidum_Dr.-Amadej-Trnkoczy.jpeg" "Photo by Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy" Geranium lucidum (shining geranium) is an annual or biennial herb/ (family Geraniaceae) with pink flowers and wide, shiny, segmented leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and north coast ranges of California. It is native to Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. It favors grasslands, dunes, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It self-pollinates and reproduces via seed. Seeds are shot from the plant and can travel 20 feet. People disperse seeds accidentally, especially along roadsides.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/geranium-purpureum-profile/Geranium purpureumGeranium robertianum subsp. purpureum; Pelargonium purpureum little robin Limited8594 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Geranium-purpureum_C140-25.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Geranium purpureum (little robin) is a herb (family Geraniaceae) with pink flowers and lobed leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and central coast ranges of California. It is native to Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. It favors grasslands and woodlands. It spreads via seeds which land within a short distance of the parent plant. Animal and human activities help disperse this plant.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/chrysanthemum-coronarium-profile/Glebionis coronariaChrysanthemum coronarium, Glebionis coronarium garland chrysanthemum, crown daisy Limited10915 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Glebionis-coronaria-crown-daisy-by-Alves-Gaspar.jpg" "Photo by Alves Gaspar" Glebionis coronaria (crown daisy) is a flowering annual (family Asteraceae) found along the central and south coast of California. Crown daisy commonly invades riparian areas, coastal dunes, prairies and scrub. It is a common ornamental plant that escapes garden settings and easily invades disturbed areas. The seeds of crown daisies sprout very quickly after rain, even in relatively dry areas. Seedlings may grow to be up to five feet tall and may form dense stands that crowd out native vegetation. Dead plant mass can remain in place for many years, preventing native plants from recolonizing.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/glyceria-declinata-profile/Glyceria declinata mannagrass; sweetgrass; waxy mannagrass Moderate9343 124 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Glyceria_declinata_mannagrass_Jean-Luc-Gorremans_cropped.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Glyceria-declinata_mannagrass_Neal-Kramer_cropped.jpeg" "Photo: Jean-Luc Gorremans","Glyceria declinata, mannagrass, inflorescence. Photo: Neal Kramer" Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae). Waxy mannagrass is found in the Central Valley, from Shasta County south to Fresno County. It has invaded deep vernal pools, swales, ditches, and stock ponds. Some reports indicate that it is rapidly spreading in Central Valley vernal pools.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/grevillea-robusta-profile/Grevillea robusta silkoak Watch9344 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Grevillea-robusta_Zoya-Akulova.jpeg" "Photo by Zoya Akulova" Grevillea robusta (silkoak) is a tree (family Proteaceae) with yellow-orange to brown flowers and finely dissected leaves found in the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to eastern Australia. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seeds and root suckers. Its winged seeds are dispersed by wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/gunnera-tinctoria-profile/Gunnera tinctoria Chilean gunnera Watch3976 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Gunnera-tinctoria_Richard-Spellenberg.jpeg" "Photo by Richard Spellenberg" Gunnera tinctoria (Chilean gunnera) is a perennial herb/ (family Gunneraceae) with clusters of purple flowers and large prickly leaves found in the central coast ranges of California. Chilean gunnera has both female and male flower parts. It is native to Chile. It occurs in grasslands, wetlands, bogs and woodlands. It spreads via seeds and rhizomes. Its seeds are dispersed by birds and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/gypsophila-paniculata-profile/Gypsophila paniculata baby's breath WatchB9536 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Gypsophila-paniculata_C093-02.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Gypsophila paniculata (baby\'s breath) is a perennial herb (family Caryophyllaceae) with white flowers and thin narrow leaves found in the Sierra Nevada, coastal, northern and desert ranges of California. It is native to central and eastern Europe. It favors grasslands and dunes. It reproduces via multitudes of seeds which are dispersed by wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/halogeton-glomeratus-profile/Halogeton glomeratusAnabasis glomeratus Halogeton ModerateB*4001 175 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Halogeton-glomeratus_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Halogeton-glomeratus_halogeton-growth-habit_Bob-Case_cropped.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Halogeton-glomeratus_halogeton_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Halogeton glomeratus, Halogeton, growth habit. Photo: Bob Case","Halogeton glomeratus, Halogeton, leaves and stem. Photo: Bob Case"

Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) is an erect winter to summer annual with small fleshy leaves (family Chenopodiaceae). It can be found throughout southern California and in all counties bordering Nevada. It has also been reported from Siskiyou and San Diego counties. Halogeton is mainly found on disturbed arid sites in salt grass, salt desert shrub, mixed desert shrub, or pinyon-juniper plant communities. Halogeton is not an extremely competitive plant, but it can quickly invade disturbed or overgrazed sites, and it can prevent reestablishment of desirable species because it can lead to salt accumulation on the soil surface. It is poisonous to livestock.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hedera-canariensis-profile/Hedera canariensis Algerian ivy High8467 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hedera-canariensis_Algerian-ivy_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo courtesy Ron Vanderhoff " Hedera canariensis (Algerian ivy) is a perennial woody vine (family Araliaceae). It is found throughout California along the coast, and is less widespread than its close relative English ivy. Algerian ivy grows vigorously in forests where nothing else seems able to compete and inhibits regeneration of understory plants, including forest wildflowers and new trees and shrubs.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hedera-helix-profile/Hedera helix English ivy High4023 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hedera-helix_English-ivy_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Hedera helix (English ivy) is a perennial evergreen woody vine (family Araliaceae). It is found throughout California along the coast, as well as in Shasta and Butte Counties. English ivy grows vigorously in forests where nothing else seems able to compete and inhibits regeneration of understory plants, including forest wildflowers and new trees and shrubs.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/helianthus-tuberosus-profile/Helianthus tuberosus Jerusalem artichoke Watch8486 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Helianthus-tuberosus_Nick-Kurzenko.jpeg" "Photo by Nick Kurzenko" Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) is a perennial herb/ (family Asteraceae) with yellow flowers and oval shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and south coast ranges of California. It is native to eastern North America. It favors grasslands, woodlands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces via seeds and tubers. Birds are the main source of seed dispersal.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/helichrysum-petiolare-profile/Helichrysum petiolare licorice plant Limited8487 126 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Helichrysum-petiolare_licorice-plant_JM-DiTomaso_cropped-2.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Helichrysum-petiolare_licorice-plant_JM-DiTomaso_cropped-1.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","Helichrysum petiolare, licorice plant, inflorescence. Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Helichrysum petiolare (licoriceplant) is a shrub (family Asteraceae) found in forested areas and coastal scrub on the central coast, including the southern side of Mt. Tamalpais and the Monterey Peninsula. Licoriceplant is a landscape ornamental that has escaped cultivation, invading undisturbed habitats. It reproduces by seed and vegetatively from stem fragments. The extent of its impacts are unknown, but it can grow to form dense stands that may crowd out native plants. Licoriceplant has been growing outside of cultivation for several decades, but these naturalized populations do not appear to spread very rapidly.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/heliotropium-amplexicaule-profile/Heliotropium amplexicaule clasping heliotrope Watch4058 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Heliotropium-amplexicaule_C071-11.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Heliotropium amplexicaule (clasping heliotrope) is a perennial herb/ (family Boraginaceae) with purple flowers and narrow leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area, south coast and desert ranges of California. It is native to Argentina. It occurs in grasslands. It spreads via seeds and root fragments. The sticky seeds can be dispersed by animals, water and machinery.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/picris-echioides-profile/Helminthotheca echioidesPicris echioides; Helminthia echidoides bristly ox-tongue; bugloss; bugloss-picris Limited10921 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Helminthotheca-echioides_bristly-oxtongue_JK-Clark_cropped.jpg" "Photo: JK Clark" Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue) is a winter or summer annual, or occasionally a biennial (family Asteraceae). It is common throughout most of California, except the deserts, and is typically found in seasonally wet places.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/heracleum-mantegazzianum-profile/Heracleum mantegazzianum giant hogweed WatchA "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Heracleum-mantegazzianum_Fritz-Geller-Grimm-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo by Fritz Geller-Grimm" Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) is a herb/ (family Apiaceae) with white flowers and large toothed leaves found in the northwestern ranges of Oregon. It is native to central Asia. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces only by seed. Seeds fall within 13 feet of the parent plant and can be carried by water and wind. Sticky seeds attach on to humans, animals and machinery.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hirschfeldia-incana-profile/Hirschfeldia incanaBrassica geniculata, Sinapsis geniculata, Sinapsis incana short-pod mustard; Mediterranean mustard; summer mustard; Greek mustard Moderate4196 127 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hirschfeldia-incana_shortpod-mustard_flower_-M-JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard, summer mustard) is a biennial or short-lived perennial forb (family Brassicaceae) that is becoming an increasing problem in wildlands of southern California. It occurs in coastal scrub and grasslands.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/holcus-lanatus-profile/Holcus lanatus common velvet grass; Yorkshire fog Moderate4201 28 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Holcus-lanatus_velvetgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Holcus lanatus (common velvetgrass) is a tufted perennial grass (family Poaceae) that tolerates high levels of heavy metals in the soil and sulfur dioxide in the air. It establishes best in moist conditions and is a facultative wetland indicator.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hordeum-marinum-profile/Hordeum marinumH. marinum ssp. gussoneanum, H. geniculatum, H. gussoneanum. H. hystrix, Critesion geniculatum, C. hystrix, C. marinum Mediterranean barley; seaside barley Moderate4224 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hordeum-marinum_Mediterranean-barley_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Hordeum marinum (Mediterranean barley) is an annual grass (family Poaceae). Mediterranean barley is widespread in annual grasses and occupies slightly wetter habitats than Horedum murinum (Hare barley).
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/horderum-murinum-profile/Hordeum murinumHordeum leporinum, Hordeum glaucum Steud., Hordeum stebbinsii Covas hare barley, foxtail, wild barley, wall barley, smooth barley Moderate4225 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hordeum-murinum-ssp.-leporinum_Hare-barley_Joseph-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joesph DiTomaso" Hordeum murinum (hare barley or foxtail) is an annual grass with long awns (family Poaceae). Hare barley may have arrived in California with Spanish settlers and is more common than Mediterranean barley in disturbed, dry upland areas.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hydrilla-verticillata-profile/Hydrilla verticillataHottonia serrata, Hydrilla angustifolia, Hydrilla dentata, Hydrilla lithuanica, Hydrilla ovalifolia, Hydrilla wightii, Leptanthes verticillatus, Serpicula verticillata, Vallisneria verticillata, Elodea verticillata hydrilla; water thyme; Florida elodea HighA*4279 77 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hydrilla_verticillata_CDFA.jpg" "Photo courtesy California Department of Food and Agriculture" Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) is a perennial aquatic plant (family Hydrocharitaceae). It has been observed in the Mojave and Colorado deserts, south and central coasts, San Francisco Bay Area, and Central Valley. Currently, isolated infestations of hydrilla are found in Shasta, Yuba, Lake, Calaveras, Madera, Mariposa, and Imperial counties. Hydrilla forms large mats that fill the water column and can block or severely restrict water flow.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hyparrhenia-hirta-profile/Hyparrhenia hirta Tambookie grass Watch4306 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hyparrhenia-hirta_Steve-Matson.jpeg" "Photo by Steve Matson" Hyparrhenia hirta (Tambookie grass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be more than 3 feet tall and grows tiny yellow flowers at its tip. It is found in the south coast ranges of California. It is native to Eurasia and Africa. It favors grasslands and scrub and chaparral habitat. It reproduces by seed. Animals, wind and water may disperse this plant short distances. It spreads more rapidly along roads than away from roads suggesting seeds are dispersed by vehicles.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hypericum-androsaemum-profile/Hypericum androsaemum sweet-amber Watch8601 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hypericum-androsaemum_Nova-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo courtesy Wikimedia" Hypericum androsaemum (sweet-amber) is a shrub (family Clusiaceae) with yellow flowers and oval shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area in California. It is native to Europe and western Asia. It favors woodlands, forests and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces by seed. Animals, water, mud and machinery can disperse this plant.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hypericum-canariense-profile/Hypericum canarienseHypericum floribundum Canary Island St. Johnswort; Grenadillo ModerateB*4308 78 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hypericum_canariense_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Hypericum canariense (Canary Island hypericum) is a rhizomatous perennial shrub (family Clusiaceae) found on the central and south coast of California and in the southern San Francisco Bay region. Canary Island hypericum infests disturbed areas, especially in coastal sage scrub and grassland habitats. This ornamental shrub forms dense stands that exclude native species. It is not yet widespread, but its prolific seed production makes rapid spread possible.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hypericum-grandifolium-profile/Hypericum grandifolium large-leaved hypericum Watch11142 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hypericum-grandifolium_Eric-Wrubel_NPS.jpeg" "Photo courtesy Eric Wrubel, NPS" Hypericum grandifolium (large-leaved Hypericum) is a shrub (family Clusiaceae) with yellow flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area in California. It is native to Madeira and the Canary Islands. It grows in woodlands. It spreads via rhizomes and seeds. Its seeds are buoyant and can be carried by water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hypericum-perforatum-profile/Hypericum perforatum St. John's wort; klamathweed; tipton weed; goatweed LimitedC*4312 79 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hypericum-perforatum_common-St.-Johnswort_flower_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Lake Tahoe Basin Weed Coordinating Group" Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort, klamathweed) is an perennial plant (family Clusiaceae) grown for medicinal use, but it can be toxic to light colored livestock when consumed in large quantities. By 1940, more than 1 million hectares of California were infested by St. Johnswort, but biological control agents have eliminated most populations below 1500 m elevation.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hypochaeris-glabra-profile/Hypochaeris glabra smooth cat's-ear Limited4313 176 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hypochaeris-glabra_smooth-catsear_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Hypochaeris glabra (smooth catsear) is an annual flowering herb (family Asteraceae) found throughout California, except in the Great Basin and desert. Smooth catsear prefers disturbed places, such as roadsides, orchards and landscaped areas, as well as grasslands, woodland and scrub. It is commonly found in overgrazed rangeland. The yellow flowers of smooth catsear look similar to dandelion flowers, and produce seeds that are dispersed by the wind, soil movement, and by clinging to animals and humans. Cultivation can be used to control smooth catsear, but grazing, mowing or burning can encourage growth and seed germination. Although smooth catsear is widespread, its impacts appear to be relatively minor.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/hypochaeris-radicata-profile/Hypochaeris radicata rough cat's-ear; false dandelion Moderate4314 177 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hypochaeris-radicata_common-catsear_flower_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Hypochaeris radicata (rough catsear, hairy dandelion) is an annual herb/forb (family Asteraceae) and a weed of lawns, pastures, and waste areas. The seeds are wind blown and can rapidly invade disturbed areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ilex-aquifolium-profile/Ilex aquifolium English holly Limited4317 80 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ilex-aquifolium_English-Holly_stem-with-fruit-M_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Ilex aquifolium (English holly) is an evergreen shrub or small tree (family Aquifoliaceae) found in the North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay region and central coast of California. English Holly is commonly sold as an ornamental plant used for landscaping and Christmas decorations. The plant has escaped cultivation and invaded moist forested areas throughout the west coast. English holly is slow-growing and may be controlled by removing plants before they start producing seed, 5-12 years after germination.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ipomoea-indica-profile/Ipomoea indica blue morningglory Watch9549 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ipomoea-indica_C106-11.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory) is a vine (family Convolvulaceae) with blue-purple flowers and lobed to oval-shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to the southeastern United States. It favors riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces vegetatively via root fragments and can sometimes also produce seed. Stems resprout vigorously when cut. Stem fragments are commonly spread by water, animals and in dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/iris-pseudacorus-profile/Iris pseudacorusIris acoriformis, Iris bastardi, Iris curtopetala, Iris lutea, Iris paludosa yellowflag iris; pale yellow iris LimitedB4358 81 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Iris-pseudacorus_yellowflag-iris-flower_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Iris pseudacorus (yellowflag iris) (family Iridaceae) invades wetlands and meadows along coastal California and some inland counties. Iris pseudacorus is a fast-growing and rapidly-spreading invasive plant that can out-compete other wetland plants, forming almost impenetrable thickets, in much the same way as cattails do.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/isatis-tinctoria-profile/Isatis tinctoria dyer's woad ModerateB*4364 31 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Isatis-tinctoria_Dyers-woad_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Isatis tinctoria (dyer\'s woad) is a winter biennial or short-lived annual herb/forb (family Brassicaceae). Plants are highly competitive and often grow in dense colonies. It can be found distributed among the Klamath, Cascade, and North Coast Ranges, northern & central Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, and northern San Francisco Bay region. Dyer\'s woad is a noxious weed of rangeland, agronomic crops, and undisturbed natural areas.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/kniphofia-uvaria-profile/Kniphofia uvaria redhot poker Watch8635 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Kniphofia-uvaria-by-Toby-Hudson.jpg" "Photo by Toby Hudson" Kniphofia uvaria (redhot poker) is a perennial herb/ (family Liliaceae) with red to yellow flowers and long narrow grasslike leaves found in the coastal ranges of California. It is native to South Africa. It favors bog and marsh, riparian and bottomland, and scrub and chaparral habitats. It produces seeds and spreads by rhizomes. The seeds are dispersed by wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/kochia-scoparia-profile/Kochia scopariaBassia scoparia, Bassia sieversiana, Chenopodium scoparia, Kochia alata, Kochia parodii, Kochia sieversiana, Kochia trichophila, Kochia virgata kochia; belvedere; belvedere-cypress; fireball; fireweed; Mexican burningbush; mock cypress Limited4537 178 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Kochia-scoparia_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Kochia scoparia (kochia) is a summer annual forb/herb (Family Chenopodiaceae) found most commonly on saline soils of California\'s Central Valley, southern desert, and coastal growing areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lantana-camara-profile/Lantana camara lantana Watch4566 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lantana-camara_Neal-Kramer.jpeg" "Photo by Neal Kramer" Lantana camara (lantana) is a shrub (family Verbenaceae) with a multicolored cluster of flowers and fragrant oval-shaped leaves found in the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to the Caribbean. It favors grasslands, woodlands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It produces seeds and spreads through its roots. Birds, sheep, goats and water may disperse seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lathyrus-latifolius-plant-profile/Lathyrus latifoliusLathyrus megalanthus, Lathyrus membranaceus perennial sweet pea, sweet pea, everlasting pea Watch4613 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Lathyrus-latifolius_NealKramer2009_edited.jpg" "Photo courtesy of: Neal Kramer (copyright)" Perennial sweet pea (Lathyrus latifolius; Fabaceae) is an herbaceous perennial vine in the pea family that has a long history in horticulture as an ornamental. It has naturalized throughout the United States, in Australia, and beyond its historic native range, across northern Africa and southern Europe. In California, this species can create monocultures in natural areas, though it is primarily associated with ruderal (roadsides and disturbed) sites. Perennial sweet pea reproduces by seed but persists and spreads locally mostly by rhizomes (underground), making it difficult to control once established. Its leaves are alternate and pinnately divided and have winged petioles. Tendrils on leaves are branched and its stems are winged. Individual plants typically grow to 3-6\'. Perennial sweet pea is toxic to livestock.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lepidium-chalepense-profile/Lepidium chalepenseCardaria chalepensis, Cardaria draba ssp. chalepensis, Cardaria draba ssp. repens, C. draba ver. repens, Lepidium draba var. repens, Lepidium repens lens-podded hoary cress, lens-podded whitetop, hoary cress, peppergrass; whitetop, whiteweed, cranson rampant, chalapa whitetop ModerateB*11789 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lepidium-chalepense_Joseph-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Lepidium chalepense (lens-podded whitetop) is a perennial (family Brassicaceae) that is relatively infrequent in California. Lepidium draba (hoary cress) and L. chalepense grow in the many habitats and areas of the state, except in the Mojave and Colorado deserts. However, L. draba occurs in wet and dry grasslands, scrubs, and arid areas with alkali soils and is much more common than lens-podded whitetop. Lepidium draba establishes monospecific mats that exclude most or all other herbaceous vegetation. L. chalepense forms dense infestations that crowd out forage plants in meadows and fields.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/cardaria-draba-profile/Lepidium drabaCardaria draba heart-podded hoary cress, whitetop ModerateB*10943 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lepidium-draba_heart-podded-hoary-cress_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo courtesy Ron Vanderhoff" Lepidium draba (hoary cress) is a perennial herb (family Brassicaceae) found most commonly in riparian areas and marshes of the central coast of California. It is also found in the southwestern region of the state, the Sacramento Valley, and the Klamath Range, where it is very invasive. This plant quickly colonizes disturbed sites, irrigated agricultural fields, roadsides and ditches. Hoary cress reproduces by seed and vegetatively from its extensive root system. Plants may resprout from small root fragments, especially where the soil is moist. Hoary cress also spreads rapidly due to its prolific seed production, but extensive control efforts have decreased the rate of spread in recent years.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lepidium-latifolium-profile/Lepidium latifoliumCardaria latifolia (L.) Spach perennial pepperweed; tall whitetop; broadleaved pepperweed HighB*4691 82 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lepidium-latifolium_perennial-pepperweed_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed, tall whitetop) is a perennial herb (family Brassicaceae) found in moist or seasonally wet sites throughout California. Perennial pepperweed is grows very aggressively, forming dense colonies that exclude native species. It reproduces both by seed and vegetatively from its roots and small root fragments. Seeds and root fragments are spread easily by flooding and soil movement, and seeds stick to tires, shoes, and animals, making continued dispersion difficult to avoid. Perennial pepperweed is a state-listed noxious weed in California and many other western states.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/leptospermum-laevigatum-profile/Leptospermum laevigatum Australian tea tree Watch4727 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Leptospermum-laevigatum_Neal-Kramer.jpeg" "Photo by Neal Kramer" Leptospermum laevigatum (Australian tea tree) is a shrub (family Myrtaceae) with white flowers and narrow leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to southeastern Australia. It grows in dunes. Its seeds are spread via wind, vehicles, soil movement, water and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/leucanthemum-vulgare-profile/Leucanthemum vulgareChrysanthemum leucanthemum ox-eye daisy; dog daisy; margriet; marguerite daisy; moon daisy; white daisy; yellow daisy; Moderate4759 32 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Leucanthemum_vulgare.jpg" "" Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) is a perennial forb/herb (family Asteraceae). It is commonly sold at nurseries. Oxeye daisy is found in both the North Coast Range and northern Sierra Nevada from sea level bluffs and canyons to alpine mountain meadows at 7,000 feet (2200 m), and from central California to Oregon. Oxeye daisy displaces native plant species, growing so densely it excludes other vegetation. It is not known to be used as a good forage by animals. While not considered poisonous to cows, it does impart a disagreeable taste to their milk.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ligustrum-lucidum-profile/Ligustrum lucidumEsquirolia sinensis; Ligustrum compactum var. latifolium; Ligustrum esquirolii glossy privet; broad-leaved privet; tree privet Limited8656 234 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ligustrum-lucidum_C115-02.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Ligustrum lucidum (glossy privet) is a shrub/tree (family Oleaceae) with white flowers and shiny oval-shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area, Sacramento Valley, coastal ranges and southwestern ranges of California. It is native to China, Japan and Korea. It favors grasslands, woodlands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seeds and root suckers. Means of dispersal include birds, water and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/limnobium-laevigatum-profile/Limnobium spongiaLimnobium laevigatum South American spongeplant; West Indian spongeplant HighA*10623 8599 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Limnobium_laevigatum-e1508437029782.jpg" "Photo by: CDFA" Limnobium spongia (South American spongeplant) is a perennial aquatic plant (family Hydrocharitaceae) found on the San Joaquin river and the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta. The spongeplant can form thick mats across the water causing problems for boats, fish, and water infrastructure. Limbnobium spongia can spread rapidly through quick seed production and vegetative growth. The small, floating seeds easily disperse once produced.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/limonium-duriusculum-profile/Limonium duriusculumStatice companyonis; Limonium thiniense; Limonium duriusculum subsp. companyonis; Limonium duriusculum subsp. thiniense European sea lavender ModerateB11803 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Limonium-duriusculum_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpeg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Limonium duriusculum (European sea lavender) is a perennial herb (family Plumbaginaceae) with tiny purple flowers and oval-shaped leaves found primarily in the San Francisco Bay area and central and south coast of California. Populations extend into the coast ranges. Limonium duriusculum is similar to another co-occurring, non-native sea lavender (L. ramosissimum) but can be differentiated by its obovate, blunt-tipped leaves and less compactly-arranged flowers. Intermediate forms have been found in the SF Bay area. It is native to the Mediterranean and favors marshes, scrub and chaparral, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seed. Human activities and water help disperse the seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/limonium-ramosissimum-profile/Limonium ramosissimum Algerian sea lavender LimitedB8670 8670 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Limonium_ramosissium-e1508441001968.jpg" "Photo courtesy of Margo Bors" Limonium ramosissimum (Algerian sea lavender) is a perennial plant (family Plumbaginaceae) that can be found in the San Francisco Bay, Carpinteria marsh (Santa Barbara County), Orange County, and San Diego County. Historic records include Riverside County as well. It is an ornamental escape that is native to the coastal Mediterranean and can grow in coastal marshes as well as inland wetlands. This species reproduces by seeds that can retain the ability to germinate after two weeks floating in salt water. It was previously listed as the \"provinciale\" in our Inventory but its subspecific identity is unclear and many collections recorded across California are not associated with subspecies. In both the SF Bay and southern California, Limonium ramosissimum co-occurs with another closely related invasive sea lavender, Limonium duriusculum.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/linaria-dalmatica-ssp-dalmatica-profile/Linaria dalmatica ssp. dalmaticaLinaria genistifolia ssp. dalmatica, Linaria dalmatica, Linaria dalmatica ssp. dalmatica, Antirrhimum dalmaticum dalmatian toadflax, broad-leaved toadflax, wild snapdragon ModerateA*11806 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Linaria-dalmatica-ssp.-dalmatica_Dalmatian-toadflax_Joseph-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Linaria dalmatica ssp. dalmatica (Dalmatian toadflax) is an herbaceous perennial that was introduced as an ornamental (Plantaginaceae Family). It can be found in disturbed open sites, fields, pastures, degraded rangelands, roadsides, agronomic and perennial crops. This weed is most commonly found in northern California, but can sporadically occur in other areas. Infestations often form large colonies, displacing desirable vegetation.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/linaria-vulgaris-profile/Linaria vulgaris yellow toadflax; butter and eggs; common linaria; common toadflax; wild snapdragon Moderate4901 34 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Linaria-vulgaris_yellow-toadflax_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Linaria vulgaris (yellow toadflax, butter and eggs) is an herbaceous perennial (family Scrophulariaceae) that was introduced as an ornamental. It can be found in disturbed open sites, fields, pastures, degraded rangelands, roadsides, agronomic and perennial crops. Although it is typically found in northern California, it can occur sporadically in many other areas of California, except desert areas and the Big Basin. Infestations often form large colonies, displacing desirable vegetation.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lobularia-maritima-profile/Lobularia maritimaAlyssum maritimum, A. odoratum, Clypeola maritima, Koniga m. sweet alyssum; sweet alison; seaside alyssum; seaside lobularia Limited4939 179 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lobularia-maritima_Sweet_alyssum_by-Pharoah-Hound.jpg" "Photo by Pharoah Hound, via Wikimedia Commons"

Lobularia maritima (sweet alyssum) is a perennial (family Brassicaceae) found along the coast of California and in the San Francisco Bay area. Sweet alyssum is a common ornamental plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded disturbed coastal dunes, scrub, bluffs, prairies and riparian areas. It has a long flowering season, and appears to have the ability to rapidly colonize suitable habitats. This Mediterranean native may crowd out native plants in some habitats.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ludwigia-hexapetala-profile/Ludwigia hexapetalaJussiaea grandiflora (M. Michelli) Greuter & Burdet; Jussiaea repens L var. grandiflora M. Michelli; Jussiaea uruguayensis Camb.; Ludwigia uruguanyensis (Camb.) Hara var. major (Hassler) Munz creeping waterprimrose; Uruguay waterprimrose HighC*5082 83 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ludwigia-hexapetala_water-primrose_Glenn-Miller_cropped-scaled.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ludwigia-hexapetala_waterprimrose_Andrey-Zharkikh_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Glenn Miller","Ludwigia hexapetala, creeping waterprimrose, close-up of flower. Photo: Andrey Zharkikh"

Ludwigia hexapetala (Uruguay water-primrose) is an aquatic plant (family Onagraceae) that forms dense mats in waterways, reaching above and below the water surface. This dense growth impedes water movement, blocks the growth of native plants, and reduces available habitat for waterbirds and fish. Although this species has been naturalized in California for at least 25 years, it has grown exponentially in the past several years, leading to increased concern over its impacts on waterways. Pieces of Uruguay water-primrose mats can catch on boat and other watercraft that then spread plants to new areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ludwigia-peploides-profile/Ludwigia peploidesJussiaea peploides floating water primrose; California waterprimrose High5084 83 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ludwigia_peploides_Meisler.jpg" "Photo courtesy Julian Meisler" Ludwigia peploides (creeping water-primrose) is a perennial aquatic plant (family Onagraceae) that forms very dense, virtually impenetrable mats which restrict fishing and boat access. It also out competes native aquatic plants. Ludwigia peploides can be found throughout California in rice fields, ditches, ponds, slow moving streams, and along edges of lakes and reservoirs. There is some confusion as to which non-native species occur in California and more than one, yet unknown, species may be invasive.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lythrum-hyssopifolium-profile/Lythrum hyssopifoliumL. adsurgens, L. hyssopifolia hyssop loosestrife; grass poly; hyssop lythrum Moderate10626 85 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lythrum-hyssopifolium_hyssop-loosestrife_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy from Joseph DiTomaso"

Lythrum hyssopifolium (hyssop loosestrife) is a perennial forb/herb (family Lythraceae) that invades wetlands. It occurs in seasonal wetlands, ditches, and cultivated fields, especially rice fields. L. hyssopifolium often grows on exposed mud, tolerates some salinity, but is sensitive to heavy frost.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/lythrum-salicaria-profile/Lythrum salicaria purple loosestrife HighB*5261 86 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lythrum_salicaria_BCase.jpg" "Photo courtesy Bob Case" Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) is a wetland herb (family Lythraceae) that invades scattered freshwater wetlands of northern and central California. Infestations are found in northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as along rivers in the southern Sierra. It is a hardy perennial that can rapidly degrade wetlands, diminishing their value for wildlife habitat.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/malephora-crocea-profile/Malephora crocea coppery mesembryanthemum Watch5347 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Malephora-crocea_C001-12.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Malephora crocea (coppery mesembryanthemum) is a herb/subshrub (family Aizoaceae) with red flowers and narrow succulent-like leaves found in the south coast ranges of California. It is native to southern Africa. It favors grasslands, dunes, and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads via seeds and root nodes. Water helps disperse the seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/marrubium-vulgare-profile/Marrubium vulgare horehound; white horehound Limited5370 180 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Marrubium-vulgare_white-horehound_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Marrubium vulgare (white horehound) is a perennial shrub/forb/herb (family Lamiaceae). This plant is found heavily populating disturbed places throughout California in grasslands scrub and riparian areas. It has mostly minor impact on native species.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/maytenus-boaria-profile/Maytenus boaria mayten Watch8519 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Maytenus-boaria_mayten_Lech-Naumovich_cropped.jpeg" "Photo: Lech Naumovich" Maytenus boaria (mayten) is a shrub/tree (family Celastraceae) with green to white flowers and narrow leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and coastal ranges of California. It is native to Argentina and Chile. It favors grasslands and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads via root suckers and seeds. Birds help disperse the seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/medicago-polymorpha-profile/Medicago polymorpha California burclover; burr medic Limited5385 181 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Medicago-polymorpha_California-burclover_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Medicago polymorpha (California burclover) is a perennial/annual forb/herb (family Fabaceae) found throughout California in disturbed areas such as pastures, roadsides and vacant lots. Although it is considered good forage for livestock in pastures, it can out-compete native species in natural areas. Despite its name, California burclover is native to the Mediterranean.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/mentha-pulegium-profile/Mentha pulegiumMentha daghestanica Boriss.; Pulegium dagestanicum (Boriss.) Holub; Pulegium vulagare Mill. pennyroyal; European pennyroyal; grows-in-a-ditch Moderate5414 129 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Mentha-pulegium_pennyroyal-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal) is a perennial mint (family Lamiaceae) with a variable habit, ranging from low-growing, spreading plants to lanky, upright sub-shrubs. Although considered uncommon in much of California, pennyroyal occurs in the Sierra foothills, Central Valley, and most coastal counties from the Mexican border to Oregon. It is common as an obligate wetland indicator species in seasonally inundated soils of valley bottomlands, usually below 1,640 feet (500 m) elevation. Pennyroyal grows in flooded or seasonally wet areas: seeps, streamsides, vernal pools and swales, marshes, and ditches. Although pennyroyal is considered moderately invasive in wetlands its ecological impacts are not well documented. It clearly prospers in habitats that were once dominated by native plants, suggesting that it may have displaced some species. In particular, the flora of vernal pools may have suffered loss of habitat through the introduction of pennyroyal.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/mesembryanthemum-crystallinum-profile/Mesembryanthemum crystallinumCryophytum crystallinum crystalline iceplant; common iceplant Moderate5460 87 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Mesembryanthemum-crystallinum_crystalline-iceplant_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant) is a low-growing annual or biennial succulent shrub (family Aizoaceae) found on coastal bluffs of the California coastline and the Channel Islands. It has been used as a landscape ornamental and is named for the small glistening vesicles that cover its leaves and stems. Crystalline iceplant inhibits the growth of native plants by accumulating salt in the soil and by leaving behind mats of dry plant matter that may take several years to decompose. It generally must colonize disturbed areas, and will not usually invade intact grasslands.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/mesembryanthemum-nodiflorum-profile/Mesembryanthemum nodiflorumCryophytum nodiflorum; Gasoul nodiflorum; Aridaria paucandra; Cryophytum gibbosum; Cryophytum rogersii slenderleaf iceplant; small flowered iceplant Limited5461 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Mesembryanthemum-nodiflorum_C001-16.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (slenderleaf iceplant) is a herb/ (family Aizoaceae) with white to yellow flowers and narrow succulent-like leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area, Channel Islands, central valley, desert ranges and south coast ranges of California. It is native to southern Africa. It favors wetlands and dunes. It propagates by seed which is dispersed by water and adhere to the soil surface. Grazing and human activities also aid in dispersal.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/myoporum-laetum-profile/Myoporum laetum ngaio tree; false sandalwood; mousehole tree Moderate5720 88 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Myoporum-laetum_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Myoporum laetum (myoporum) is an evergreen shrub or small tree (family Myoporaceae) found along the coast of California and in the San Francisco Bay region. It favors coastal areas, woodlands and riparian areas. This landscape ornamental has white flowers with purple dots and reddish-purple fruits. Myoporum has escaped cultivation in many areas, and is commonly found near urban areas. Myoporum may crowd out native plants, growing to form dense stands. It is susceptible to damage from the introduced myoporum thrips (Klambothrips myopori; Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), which is believed to have slowed its spread.  A recently introduced thrips-resistant cultivar (Clean n Green) has also been evaluated as potentially invasive. Myoporum foliage contains toxic chemical compounds that can cause fatal liver damage in livestock, so grazing is not a control option. Mature plants are commonly treated by cutting at ground level and painting the stump with an herbicide.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/myosotis-latifolia-profile/Myosotis latifoliaMyosotis sylvatica [misapplied in older California references] common forget-me-not; wood forget-me-not; broadleaf forget-me-not Limited5722 182 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Myosotis-latifolia_broadleaf-forget-me-not_flower_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Myosotis latifolia (common forget-me-not) is a perennial or annual (family Boraginaceae) found in coniferous and riparian areas along the coast, from Monterey to Humboldt County.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/myriophyllum-aquaticum-profile/Myriophyllum aquaticumEnhydria aquatica, Myriophyllum brasiliense, M. proserpinacoides parrotfeather; Brazilian watermilfoil; parrotfeather watermilfoil; thread-of-life; HighC5735 89 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Myriophyllum_aquaticum_By-André-Karwath.jpg" "Photo by André Karwath, via Wikimedia Commons"

Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrotfeather) is a stout aquatic perennial (family Haloragaceae) that forms dense mats of intertwined brownish stems (rhizomes) in water. Myriophyllum aquaticum can be found in freshwater lakes, ponds, and canals with slow-moving waters in northern and central California. This invasive plant may compete with native aquatic plants, eliminating them or reducing their numbers in infested sites. It forms dense mats that can entirely cover the surface of the water in shallow lakes and other waterways. The species does not produce viable seed and its distribution is limited to vegetative dispersal mechanisms.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/myriophyllum-spicatum-profile/Myriophyllum spicatum spike watermilfoil HighC5738 90 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Myriophyllum_spicatum_JD-e1508441093532.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) is a common submersed aquatic perennial (family Haloragaceae). Eurasian watermilfoil can be found in freshwater lakes, ponds, and canals with slow-moving waters in northern and central California, particularly in the San Francisco Bay and San Joaquin Valley regions and Lake Tahoe. This plant grows and spreads rapidly, creating dense mats on the water surface. These monotypic mats out-compete native aquatic plants, reducing species diversity.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/nardus-stricta-profile/Nardus stricta matgrass Watch "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Nardus-stricta_matgrass_James-Lindsey_cropped.jpg" "Photo: James Lindsey" Nardus stricta (matgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be more than 1 foot tall and is found in the southwestern ranges of Oregon. It is native to Eastern Europe. It favors grasslands, wetlands, and bog and marsh habitat. It reproduces mostly through transport of tufts in mud clinging to the hooves of grazing animals. Seeds also attach to the wool of sheep.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/nicotiana-glauca-profile/Nicotiana glauca tree tobacco Moderate5860 36 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Nicotiana-glauca_tree-tobacco_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) is a tree/shrub (family Solanaceae), which stands 10-20 feet tall and is short-lived. Tree tobacco was introduced to California about 100 years ago and is found growing up to 5,000 feet in disturbed soils, vacant lots, along roadsides, streamsides, and other riparian areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/nothoscordum-gracile-profile/Nothoscordum gracile false garlic WatchB*10157 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Nothoscordum-gracile_C151-02.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Nothoscordum gracile (false garlic, false onionweed) is a perennial herb/ (family Liliaceae) with white flowers and long narrow grasslike leaves which is found in the central western ranges and south coast ranges of California. It is native to South America. False garlic grows in grasslands and spreads via seed and underground bulblets. Seeds are dispersed via wind, water and dumped garden waste. It is highly invasive and difficult to control. If using manual control, dig plants out rather than pulling them as pulling facilitates bulbs to split and multiply.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/olea-europaea-profile/Olea europaea olive Limited5912 130 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Olea-europaea_Olive_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Olea europaea (olive) is a shrub or tree (family Oleaceae) that can produce hundreds of seeds that are spread by birds and mammals. Though commonly grown as a crop in California, gardeners should use caution planting olives near open space. It has invaded areas in southern California and the Central Valley.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/oncosiphon-piluliferum-profile/Oncosiphon piluliferMatricaria globifera, Pentzia globifera, Oncosiphon piluliferum stinknet; globe chamomile High8492 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Oncosiphon-pilulifer_stinknet_Ron-Vanderhoff_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Ron Vanderhoff" Oncosiphon pilulifer (stinknet) is a strongly-scented annual herb (family Asteraceae) with round yellow flowers and finely dissected leaves found in the south coast and desert ranges of Southern California. It is native to South Africa. It favors dunes and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads via seeds which travel through human activities and machinery.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ononis-alopecuroides-profile/Ononis alopecuroides foxtail restharrow LimitedA*8573 183 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ononis-alopecuroides_foxtail-restharrow_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Ononis alopecuroides (foxtail restharrow) is a woody annual (family Fabaceae) whose current distribution in California is limited to one location in San Luis Obispo County. This Mediterranean native prefers disturbed places, such as fields and pastures, as well as grasslands and oak woodlands. Although the one known population is almost completely eradicated, foxtail restharrow has the potential to be a highly aggressive invader, forming dense stands that exclude native plants. It is considered weedy in northern and central Europe.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/onopordum-acanthium-profile/Onopordum acanthium Scotch thistle; cotton thistle; woolly thistle; winged thistle; jackass thistle; heraldic thistle HighA*10161 37 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Onopordum-acanthium_-Scotch-thistle_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Onopordum acanthium (Scotch thistle) is a biennial or short-lived perennial (family Asteraceae) which is primarily found in the northeastern regions of California. Severe infestations can form tall, dense, impenetrable stands, especially in fertile soils. Onopordum acanthium reproduces only by seeds, which can germinate year round, and it is drought resistant. Infestations can reduce forage and impede movement for livestock and wildlife.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/onopordum-illyricum-profile/Onopordum illyricum Illyerian thistle WatchA*5917 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Onopordum-illyricum_C056-05.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Onopordum illyricum (Illyerian thistle) is a biennial herb/ (family Asteraceae) with purple flowers and prickly toothed leaves found in the central coast ranges of California. It is native to southeastern Europe. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seeds equipped with fine hairs. The seeds spread via wind, water, wool, vehicles and clothing.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/orobanche-aegyptiaca-profile/Orobanche aegyptiaca Egyptian broomrape WatchA13052 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Orobanche_aegyptiaca_DeanKelch.jpg" "Photo courtesy California Department of Food and Agriculture " Orobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape) is a perennial herb/ (parasitic) (family Orobanchaceae) with purple flowers and tiny leaves found in the central valley of California. It is native to the Middle East. It grows in grasslands. It reproduces via seeds which are carried by water, wind, animals and man.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/oxalis-pes-caprae-profile/Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda buttercup; buttercup oxalis; sour grass Moderate6016 131 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Oxalis-pes-caprae_buttercup-oxalis_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Oxalis pes-caprae (buttercup oxalis, Bermuda buttercup, yellow oxalis) is a low-growing perennial (family Oxalidaceae) found along the coast of California, in the Coastal Ranges, and in the Sacramento Valley. Buttercup oxalis occurs in coastal dunes, scrub, oak woodlands, gardens, turf, urban areas, orchards and agricultural fields. Buttercup oxalis was introduced as an ornamental landscape plant from South Africa. Although buttercup oxalis does not produce seeds, it is difficult to control because of its ability to form many persistent bulbs. Cultivation may be an effective control if carried out when the plants are just beginning to flower.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/paraserianthes-lophantha-profile/Paraserianthes lophantha plume acacia Watch165 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Paraserianthes-lopantha_Kurt-Stuber-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo by Kurt Stuber" Paraserianthes lophantha (plume acacia) is a shrub/tree (family Fabaceae) with green-yellow flowers and large, finely dissected leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area, coastal ranges and the Channel Islands of California. It is native to southeastern Asia and southwestern Australia. It favors woodlands, dunes, grasslands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It reproduces by seeds which are spread primarily by birds, ants and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/parentucellia-viscosa-profile/Parentucellia viscosaBartsia viscosa, Bellardia viscosa yellow glandweed; sticky parentucellia; broadleaved glandweed Limited6062 184 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Parentucellia-viscosa_Yellow-glandweed_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Parentucellia viscosa (yellow glandweed, sticky parentucellia) is an annual forb/herb (family Scrophulariaceae) that invades wetland prairies along the coast and pastures in the Sierra Nevada. It is especially invasive on dune wetlands at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/parthenium-hysterophorus-profile/Parthenium hysterophorus Santa Maria feverfew WatchA*12729 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Parthenium-hysterophorus_Ron-Vanderhoff-.jpeg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff " Parthenium hysterophorus (Santa Maria feverfew) is a herb (family Asteraceae) with white flowers and lobed leaves found in the south coast ranges of California. It is native to the American tropics. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It is a prolific seed producer. Its seeds travel via wind, water, birds, vehicles, farm machinery and other animal traffic.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/paspalum-urvillei-profile/Paspalum urvillei Vasey's grass Watch6086 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Paspalum-urvillei_S45-13.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Paspalum urvillei (Vasey\'s grass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow up to 6 feet tall found in the Central Valley and central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to South America. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads by seed and by rhizome. The seeds are dispersed by wind, water, animals, vehicles, machinery and in contaminated soil.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/paspalum-vaginatum-profile/Paspalum vaginatum seashore paspalum Watch11906 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Paspalum-vaginatum_seashore-paspalum_Ron-Vanderhoff_cropped.jpeg" "Photo: Ron Vanderhoff" Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to approximately 20 inches tall and is found in the Sonoran Desert and south coast ranges of California. It is native to southeastern North America, other parts of tropical Central and South America and Africa. It favors dunes and bog and marsh habitat. It reproduces vegetatively via sod, containerized material and rhizomes. Its seeds are rarely viable. It spreads via agricultural activities, animal grazing and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/passiflora-tarminiana-profile/Passiflora tarminiana banana passionfruit Watch8666 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Passiflora-tarminiana_Barry-Rice.jpeg" "Photo by Barry Rice" Passiflora tarminiana (banana passionfruit) is a vine (family Passifloraceae) with pink flowers and lobed leaves found in the central coast ranges of California. It is native to South America. It favors woodlands, grasslands, scrub and chaparral, forests, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seeds and detached stems that re-root. Seeds from the large, fleshy fruits are spread by mammals, birds and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/peganum-harmala-profile/Peganum harmala African-rue WatchA*8761 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Peganum-harmala_C253-03.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Peganum harmala (African-rue) is a perennial herb/ (family Zygophyllaceae) with white flowers and thin narrow leaves found in the Mojave Desert in California. It is native to the Mediterranean and central Asia. It favors grasslands. It spreads via seeds and roots. Seeds are dispersed by water, animals, farm machinery and other vehicles. Local spread occurs when pieces of rootstock are severed and moved during cultivation.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pennisetum-clandestinum-profile/Pennisetum clandestinum kikuyugrass LimitedC*6132 132 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pennisetum-clandestinum_kikuyugrass_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyugrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that prefers disturbed areas, such as roadsides, urban areas, cropland, turf, forested sites and wetland areas. Kikuyugrass reproduces from seed and vegetatively, using its extensive system of creeping stolons and rhizomes. Kikuyugrass populations can be controlled by hand removal if detected early. Agricultural and landscape maintenance equipment should be cleaned after use in areas with kikuyugrass infestations in order to prevent the spread of rhizome and stolon fragments.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pennisetum-setaceum-profile/Pennisetum setaceumPennisetum ruppelii, Phalaris setaceum crimson fountain grass; purple fountain grass; tender fountain grass ModerateC6133 133 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pennisetum-setaceum_crimson-fountaingrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Pennisetum setaceum (crimson fountaingrass) is a coarse tufted perennial grass (family Poaceae). It primarily grows along the southern California coast. Crimson fountaingrass is well adapted to fire, and plants can recover to pre-burn density, even increase in density, following a burn. It is cultivated as an ornamental, but the red cultivar is sterile and not considered invasive.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pennisetum-villosum-profile/Pennisetum villosum feathertop Watch6134 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pennisetum-villosum_C203-12.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Pennisetum villosum (feathertop) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) with fuzzy white to light brown flowers and long narrow leaves found in the Sierra Nevada range, central coast ranges and southwestern ranges of California. It is native to Africa. It favors grasslands, dunes, and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads via rhizomes and seed. Seeds travel via mud, machinery, water, wind, animals, humans and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/persicaria-wallichii-profile/Persicaria wallichii Himalayan knotweed WatchB*11015 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Persicaria-wallichii_Dean-Kelch_CDFA.jpeg" "Photo by Dean Kelch" Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) is a perennial herb/ (family Polygonaceae) with white flowers and narrow leaves found in the north and central coast ranges of California. It is native to south-central Asia. It favors grasslands, wetlands, bog and marsh, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via small fragments that form new plants. Means of dispersal include wind, water, animals and humans.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/phalaris-aquatica-profile/Phalaris aquaticaPhalaris commutata, Phalaris stenoptera, Phalaris tuberosa harding grass; bulbous canarygrass; phalaris; toowoomba grass Moderate6416 134 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Phalaris-aquatica_hardinggrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Phalaris aquatica (hardinggrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) found throughout California. Hardinggrass is widespread in California because it has been used as a forage species and for revegetating after fires. It is most common in coastal valley and foothill grasslands from Oregon to the Mexican border. It is also found in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys at elevations below 4,000 feet (1,200 m). Hardinggrass is typically found along roadsides that are seldom mowed, allowing this tall, erect, leafy plant to dominate neighboring vegetation. In wildland habitats, hardinggrass can out-compete and displace native plant species. Tall stands of its dry foliage can present a fire hazard in summer.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/phoenix-canariensis-profile/Phoenix canariensis Canary Island date palm Limited6449 91 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Phoenix-canariensis_young-canary-island-date-palm_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) is a tree that has escaped cultivation in southern California to invade stream corridors as well as orchards and, occasionally, landscaped areas. As the name implies, Canary Island date palm is native to the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa. Growing to 25 m tall, Canary Island date palms tend to grow in clusters that form a dense canopy that excludes light from reaching beneath them, leading to a loss of native plants.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/phytolacca-americana-profile/Phytolacca americanaPhytolacca decandra L. in part. common pokeweed; American cancer; American pokeweed; cancer jalap; coakum; garget; inkberry; pigeonberry; poke; poke sallet; pokeberry; pokeweed; red-ink plant; redweed; scoke; Virgina poke Limited6491 245 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Phytolacca-americana_common-pokeweed_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed) is a tall perennial forb/herb (family Scrophulariaceae) that invades disturbed sites throughout most of California except the Great Basin and deserts. In the Southern U.S., specially prepared shoots and berries with the seeds removed are used in foods. However, all parts of the plant can be fatally toxic to humans and livestock.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pittosporum-undulatum-profile/Pittosporum undulatum Victorian box Watch6548 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pittosporum-undulatum_Zoya-Akulova.jpeg" "Photo by Zoya Akulova" Pittosporum undulatum (Victorian box) is a shrub/tree (family Pittosporaceae) with white flowers and narrow wavy leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area, Channel Islands and coastal ranges of California. It is native to southeastern Australia. It favors forests, woodlands, grasslands, and scrub and chaparral habitat. It spreads via seeds and roots. The sticky seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/plantago-lanceolata-profile/Plantago lanceolata English plantain; buckhorn plantain; buck plantain; black-jacks; narrowleaf plantain; lanceleaf plantain; ribbed plantain; ribgrass; ribwort Limited6618 188 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Plantago-lanceolata_buckhorn-plantain_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Plantago lanceolata (buckhorn plantain, English plantain) is a perennial forb/herb (family Plantaginaceae) found widespread throughout California. This plant tolerates sand, clay and serpentine soils and thrives in disturbed areas. It is also a common lawn weed. It is considered a noxious weed to both livestock and native plants.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/plecostachys-serpyllifolia-profile/Plecostachys serpyllifolia petite-licorice Watch11936 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Plecostachys-serpyllifolia_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpeg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Plecostachys serpyllifolia (petite-licorice) is a subshrub/shrub (family Asteraceae) with tiny white flowers and tiny oval-shaped leaves found in the coastal ranges of California. It is native to southern Africa. It favors grasslands and meadows. It reproduces via seeds which travel by wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/poa-pratensis-profile/Poa pratensisPaneion pratense (L.) Lunell., several subspecies Kentucky bluegrass; smooth meadowgrass Limited6686 136 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Poa-pratensis_Kentucky-bluegrass_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that has escaped cultivation and is found sporadically in many different habitats in California. Kentucky bluegrass can produce 200 seeds per panicle in the first year and the species increases with grazing and burning. Kentucky bluegrass out competes with native species, reducing overall diversity and altering species composition.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/polygala-myrtifolia-profile/Polygala myrtifolia myrtle-leaf milkwort Watch8704 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Polygala-myrtifolia_Luigi-Rignanese-e1508437871442.jpeg" "Photo by Luigi Rignanese" Polygala myrtifolia (myrtle-leaf milkwort) is a shrub (family Polygalaceae) with pink-purple flowers and narrow leaves found in the central coast ranges of California. It is native to South Africa. It favors grasslands, woodlands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads only by seeds which travel via water, birds, ants and dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/polypogon-monspeliensis-profile/Polypogon monspeliensisAgrostis alopecuroides Lam., Alopecurus aristatus var. monspeliensis (L.) Huds., Alopecurus monspeliensis L., Phleum crinitum Schreb., Phleum monspeliense Koel., Polypogon crinitus (Schreb.) Nutt., Polypogon flavescens J. Presl, Santia monspeliensis (L.) Parl. rabbitsfoot grass; annual beardgrass; rabbitfootgrass; tawny beardgrass Limited6784 189 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Polypogon_monspeliensis_JDiTomaso-e1510169275781.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Polypogon monspeliensis and subspp. (rabbit footpolypogon, annual beardgrass) is a winter or summer annual grass (family Poaceae) that can form dense stands in some areas of California. It is common in moist to wet areas.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/potamogeton-crispus-profile/Potamogeton crispus curly-leaved pondweed; curled pondweed; curly pondweed Moderate6806 92 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Potamogeton_crispus_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) is an aquatic perennial (family Potamogetonaceae). The genus Potamogeton contains many widespread, variable species that are difficult to tell apart. Potamogeton species are important for wildlife, but they can become problems in managed aquatic systems such as irrigation canals. All species of Potamogeton are native to California except P. crispus. There is no evidence that curlyleaf pondweed hybridizes with native Potamogeton species, particularly since it primarily reproduces vegetatively.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/prunus-cerasifera-profile/Prunus cerasiferaNone known cherry plum; Myrobalan plum; Pissard plum; purpleleaf plum Limited6887 190 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Prunus_cerasifera_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Prunus cerasifera (cherry plum) is a deciduous tree (family Rosaceae). It is an ornamental plant that has escaped cultivation, so it is often found near towns and along roadsides, as well as in chaparral, woodland, and riparian areas. Cherry plum\'s yellow to dark red fruits are distributed widely by people, birds, raccoons, and other wildlife. Although cherry plum trees may crowd out some native trees and shrubs, they usually grow quite sparsely, and so have a lesser impact than plants that grow in dense patches. Control cannot be achieved by simply cutting trees down, as the plant will resprout from trunks and roots.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pyracantha-angustifolia-profile/Pyracantha angustifoliaCotoneaster pyracantha (L.) Spach narrowleaf firethorn; slender firethorn; woolly firethorn Limited6955 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pyracantha_angustifolia_JDiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Pyracantha angustifolia (pyracantha, firethorn) is an evergreen shrub with bright red berries and spiny branches (family Rosaceae). They are commonly found in disturbed sites, along roadsides, and in coastal scrub, prairie, and riparian areas. Pyracantha species, which have bright red berries and green foliage, are a common ornamental plant that have escaped cultivation. The fruits of pyracantha are widely dispersed by birds, which may also nest in the bushes. However, successful new introductions are rare, especially in areas that do not provide the ideal cool, moist climate for pyracantha.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pyracantha-coccinea-profile/Pyracantha coccineaCotoneaster pyracantha (L.) Spach scarlet firethorn, firethorn Limited8726 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pyracantha-coccinea_scarlet-firethorn_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo courtesy Ron Vanderhoff" Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn) is an evergreen shrub with bright red berries (family Rosaceae). It is commonly found in disturbed sites, along roadsides, and in coastal scrub, prairie, and riparian areas. Pyracantha species, which have bright red berries and green foliage, are a common ornamental plant that have escaped cultivation. The fruits of pyracantha are widely dispersed by birds, which may also nest in the bushes. However, successful new introductions are rare, especially in areas that do not provide the ideal cool, moist climate for pyracantha.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pyracantha-crenulata-profile/Pyracantha crenulataCotoneaster pyracantha (L.) Spach Nepalese firethorn, Himalayan firethorn, Nepal firethorn Limited8728 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pyracantha-crenulata_Nepalese-firethorn_Tony-Rodd_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Tony Rodd" Pyracantha crenulata (Nepalese firethorn) is an evergreen shrub with bright red berries (family Rosaceae). It is commonly found in disturbed sites, along roadsides, and in coastal scrub, prairie, and riparian areas. Pyracantha species, which have bright red berries and green foliage, are a common ornamental plant that have escaped cultivation. The fruits of pyracantha are widely dispersed by birds, which may also nest in the bushes. However, successful new introductions are rare, especially in areas that do not provide the ideal cool, moist climate for pyracantha.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pyrus-calleryana-profile/Pyrus calleryana Callery pear Watch12819 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Pyrus-calleryana_Gary-A.-Monroe.jpeg" "Photo by Gary A. Monroe" Pyrus calleryana (Callery pear) is a tree (family Rosaceae) with white flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the Central Valley of California. It is native to China and Vietnam. It favors grasslands and woodlands. It spreads via seeds and root suckers. Seeds are dispersed from ornamental trees via birds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ranunculus-repens-profile/Ranunculus repens creeping buttercup Limited7056 192 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ranunculus-repens_creeping-buttercup_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) is a spreading perennial forb/herb (family Ranunculaceae), found in many coastal areas of California. It can sometimes form large monocultures, especially in moist areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/raphanus-sativus-profile/Raphanus sativusR. raphanistrum var. sativus wild radish Limited7064 137 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Raphanus-sativus_radish-flower_fruit_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Raphanus sativus (radish) is an annual or occasionally a perennial (family Brassicaceae) that frequently invades grasslands and open/disturbed areas, including roadsides in California. Wild radish may also be found in wetland areas. Wild radishes are capable of excluding native plant species and are, on rare occasion, toxic to livestock.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/rhamnus-alaternus-profile/Rhamnus alaternus Italian buckthorn Watch9447 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rhamnus-alaternus_Italian-buckthorn_RonVanderhoff_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Ron Vanderhoff" Rhamnus alaternus (Italian buckthorn) is a shrub (family Rhamnaceae) with tiny green to white flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area and central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to the Mediterranean. It favors scrub and chaparral, forests, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seed and resprouts vigorously from the base after damage. Seeds are spread by fruit-eating birds and mammals, ants and in dumped garden waste.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/acroptilon-repens-profile/Rhaponticum repensAcroptilon repens, Centaurea repens Russian knapweed, hardheads, creeping knapweed, mountain bluet, Turkestan thistle ModerateB*13621 1 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acroptilon-repens_Russian-knapweed_JM-DiTomaso.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Acroptilon-repens_Russian-knapweed_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: David Chang","Rhaponticum repens, Russian knapweed, rosette. Photo: Bob Case" Rhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed) is a perennial forb (family Asteraceae) found in isolated patches throughout California. It may have allelopathic properties. This plant is toxic to horses and crowds out native species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ricinus-communis-profile/Ricinus communis castor bean Limited7153 138 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ricinus-communis_castorbean_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Ricinus communis (castorbean) is an herbaceous plant or semi-woody large shrub or small tree (family Euphorbiaceae). It grows quickly in mild climates and has escaped cultivation to become a noxious weed in southern and central California. Castorbean contains ricin, an extremely toxic chemical that can kill an adult who consumes only four to eight seeds. Handling foliage and seeds can cause severe dermatitis.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/robinia-pseudoacacia-profile/Robinia pseudoacacia black locust Limited7156 40 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Robinia-pseudoacacia_Black-locust_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) is a deciduous tree (family Fabaceae) that grows to 100 feet tall. Historically planted as a landscape tree, black locust has escaped cultivation and become invasive in California and elsewhere. It can grow on a wide range of sites, but grows best on rich, moist, limestone-derived soils. It does not do well on heavy or poorly drained soils, although it appears to be tolerant of some flooding. Through root sprouts and seedling establishment, black locust creates large stands that displace native vegetation. Its seeds, leaves, and bark are toxic to humans and livestock.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/romulea-rosea-profile/Romulea rosea var. australisRomulea rosea rosy sandcrocus Watch10308 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Romula-rosea_Neal-Kramer.jpeg" "Photo by Neal Kramer" Romulea rosea var. australis (rosy sandcrocus) is a perennial herb/ (family Iridaceae) with pink flowers and long narrow leaves (grasslike) found in the San Francisco Bay area, Sacramento Valley and north and central coast ranges of California. It is native to southern Africa. It favors grasslands, woodlands and dunes. It spreads via corms that build up in the soil locally and may also be propagated by seed. Means of dispersal include animals and machinery.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/rubus-armeniacus-profile/Rubus armeniacusRubus discolor Weihe & Nees., Rubus procerus Muller, Rubus grabowskii Weihe ex Gunther et al., Rubus praecox Bertol. Himalayan blackberry High10319 139 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rubus-armeniacus_Hilamalaya-blackberry_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry), formerly known as Rubus discolor, is a sprawling, essentially evergreen, glandless, robust shrub (family Rosaceae). Rubus armeniacus occurs in California in the coast ranges, Central Valley, and Sierra Nevada. This weed is a strong competitor. It rapidly displaces native plant species and thickets to produce such a dense canopy that the lack of light severely limits the growth of understory plants.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/rumex-acetosella-profile/Rumex acetosellaAcetosella vulgaris sheep sorrel Moderate7213 193 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rumex-acetosella_red-sorrell_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Rumex acetosella (red sorrel, sheep sorrel) is a perennial forb/herb (family Polygonaceae). In California, sheep sorrel occurs in a freshwater marsh community and is common in annual grasslands, montane meadows and perennial bunchgrass communities.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/rumex-crispus-profile/Rumex crispus curly dock Limited7215 194 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rumex-crispus.jpg" "Photo by Stickpen via Wikimedia Commons"

Rumex crispus (curly dock) is a perennial forb/herb (family Polygonaceae) found throughout California. It can grow in many habitats, including grassy places, waste ground, roadsides and near sand dunes but is primarily found in flood plains and in agricultural areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/rytidosperma-caespitosum-profile/Rytidosperma caespitosum wallabygrass Watch12000 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rytidosperma-caespitosum_Keir-Morse.jpeg" "Photo by Keir Morse" Rytidosperma caespitosum (wallabygrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be more than 2 feet tall and is found in the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to Australia. It favors grasslands and dunes. It spreads via seed, often along roadsides. Its seeds are bristly and get carried by the wind. Humans and machinery also disperse the seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/danthonia-pilosa-profile/Rytidosperma penicillatumDanthonia pilosa R. Br.; Rytidosperma pilosum (R. Br.) Connor & Edgar hairy wallaby grass; hairy oat grass Limited10684 10684 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rytidosperma-penicillatum_hairy-wallaby-grass_Michael-Uhler_cropped.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rytidosperma-penicillatum_hairy-wallaby-grass_Zoya-Akulova_-cropped.jpg" "Photo: Michael Uhler","Rytidosperma penicillatum, hairy wallaby grass, inflorescence. Photo: Zoya Akulova" Rytidosperma penicillatum (= Danthonia pilosa hairy wallaby grass) is a perennial (family Poaceae) native to Australia. It is also found in Oregon and grows in disturbed open areas, meadows, and conifer forests.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/saccharum-ravennae-profile/Saccharum ravennaeErianthus ravennae (L.) P.Beauv and subspecies. ravennagrass; hardy pampas grass; plume grass; canna di Ravenna Moderate7242 94 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Saccharum-ravennae_ravennagrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Saccharum ravennae (ravennagrass) is a large perennial grass (family Poaceae) found in the Sonoran Desert and Sacramento Valley of California. It is also found in a number of other states throughout the country. Ravennagrass is sold in the nursery trade as a hardier alternative to pampas grass, since it can grow in cooler climates. Ravennagrass grows in moist places such as marshes and riparian areas, establishing itself easily in disturbed areas. It is spreading rapidly along Cache Creek in the Sacramento Valley.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salpichroa-origanifolia-profile/Salpichroa origanifolia lily of the valley vine WatchC7292 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salpichroa-origanifolia_Zoya-Akulova.jpeg" "Photo by Zoya Akulova" Salpichroa origanifolia (lily of the valley vine) is a vine (family Solanaceae) with white flowers and oval-shaped leaves found in the San Francisco Bay area, Sacramento Valley and southwestern ranges of California. It is native to South America. It occurs in grasslands. It spreads via seeds, root fragments and pieces of underground stems. These stems are spread via dumped garden waste. Animals, wind, water and human activities can also spread seeds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salsola-paulsenii-profile/Salsola paulseniiformerly considered part of Russian thistle species (Salsola iberica or Salsola tragus) barbwire Russian thistle LimitedC*7294 195 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salsola-paulsenii_barbwire-Russian-thistle_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Salsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle) is a bushy annual (family Chenopodiaceae) found throughout the Mojave Desert of California. It prefers loose, sandy soils in desert scrub and disturbed areas, such as roadsides and cultivated fields. Barbwire Russian thistle is easily confused with Russian thistle (Salsola tragus), and the two species can hybridize, making a plant that looks like a mix between the two species. Both species reproduce using seeds which can only survive for up to two years in the soil. Cultivation can effectively control barbwire Russian thistle seedlings, but must be repeated until all seeds in the seedbank loose viability.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salsola-ryanii-profile/Salsola ryanii Ryan's Russian thistle Watch12005 Salsola ryanii (Ryan\'s Russian thistle) is an annual herb/ (family Chenopodiaceae) with white to pink papery flowers and small narrow leaves found in the Central Valley and southwestern ranges of California. It is native to Australia or South Africa. It favors grasslands and dunes. It spreads via seed. It exhibits a “tumbling” habit allowing long-distance dispersal via wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salsola-soda-profile/Salsola soda glasswort; oppositeleaf Russian thistle Moderate7295 196 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salsola-soda_Glasswort_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Salsola soda (oppositeleaf Russian thistle, glasswort) is an annual (family Chenopodiaceae) found in the San Francisco Bay region. Oppositeleaf Russian thistle is native to southern Europe and inhabits vernal pools, swamps, mudflats and salt marshes. It may form dense stands in estuaries, especially in disturbed areas or places where dredge soil is discharged. It is also widespread in undisturbed salt marsh areas in the southern San Francisco Bay. Oppositeleaf Russian thistle’s floating fruits act to distribute its seeds on tidal currents.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salsola-tragus-profile/Salsola tragusSalsola australis, S. iberica, S. kali var. tenuifolia, S. kali ssp. ruthenica, S. kali ssp. tenuifolia, S. kali ssp. tragus, S. pestifera, S. ruthenica. Russian thistle; common saltwort; prickly Russian thistle; Russian tumbleweed; tumbleweed; tumbling weed; windwitch; witchweed; prickly glasswort LimitedC*7296 197 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salsola-tragus_Russian-thistle_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salsola-tragus_Russian-thistle_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Bob Case","Salsola tragus, Russian thistle, leaves and stem. Photo: JM DiTomaso" Salsola tragus (Russian-thistle) is a large, bushy summer annual (family Chenopodiaceae). It can be found throughout California, including in agricultural areas, desert, roadsides and other disturbed areas. Russian-thistle can impede traffic, create fire hazards, and is a host of the beet leaf-hopper, an agricultural insect pest.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salvia-aethiopis-profile/Salvia aethiopis Mediterranean sage; African sage LimitedB*7297 198 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salvia-aethiopis_Mediterranean-sage_Bob-Case_cropped-scaled.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salvia-aethiopis_Mediterranean-sage_-JM-Di-Tomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Bob Case","Salvia aethiopis, Mediterranean sage, inflorescences. Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Salvia aethiopis (Mediterranean sage) is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb (family Lamiaceae) with very woolly leaves. It typically invades rangeland in northern California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/salvinia-molesta-profile/Salvinia molestaThe Salvinia genus is complex of closely-related aquatic ferns that are difficult to distinguish from one another: Salvinia auriculata, S. biloba, S. hertzogii, S. molesta giant salvinia; karibaweed; water velvet; African pyle; aquarium watermoss; water fern; koi kandy HighA*8734 95 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Salvinia_molesta_Issempa_Wikimedia-Commons.jpg" "Photo by Issempa, via Wikimedia Commons" Salvinia molesta (giant salvinia) is a floating aquatic fern (family Salviniaceae) found in the lower Colorado River and its drainages in the Sonoran Desert, and in San Luis Obispo County, California. Giant salvinia was originally introduced for use in aquaria and ponds. It grows in dense mats that may completely cover water surfaces, preventing water movement, increasing stagnation, and decreasing available oxygen. The thick mats exclude native plants, animals and recreationists while creating more habitat for mosquitoes. Giant salvinia is listed as a federal and state noxious weed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/saponaria-officinalis-profile/Saponaria officinalisLychnis saponaria Jessen bouncing-bet; bouncing betty; soapwort; goodbye summer Limited7344 199 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Saponaria-officinalis_Bouncingbet_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Saponaria officinalis (bouncingbet) is a perennial (family Caryophyllaceae) with vigorous rhizomes. Bouncingbet is cultivated as an ornamental or medicinal plant but has escaped gardens in various regions of the United States. In California, it is especially problematic near Mono Lake.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/scabiosa-atropurpurea-profile/Scabiosa atropurpurea pincushion flower Watch7374 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Scabiosa-atropurpurea_Neal-Kramer-.jpeg" "Photo by Neal Kramer" Scabiosa atropurpurea (pincushion flower) is a herb/ (family Dipsacaceae) with red to purple flowers and narrow leaves found in the Central Valley and central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to southern Europe. It favors grasslands. It propagates by seeds which are dispersed by animals.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/schinus-molle-profile/Schinus molle Peruvian pepper tree; California pepper tree Limited7378 140 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Schinus-molle_Peruvian-peppertree_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Schinus molle (Peruvian peppertree) is an aromatic, evergreen shrub or tree (family Anacardiaceae) found in central and southern California. Along with Brazilian peppertree (S. terebinthifolius), Peruvian peppertree has escaped cultivation to become invasive.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/schinus-terebinthifolius-profile/Schinus terebinthifoliusSchinus mucronulata, S. antiarthriticus Brazilian pepper tree; Christmas-berry tree; Christmasberry; Florida holly Moderate7379 141 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Schinus-terebinthifolius_Brazilian-peppertree_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian peppertree) is an evergreen shrub or tree found along portions of the southern coast of California. Brazilian peppertree prefers riparian areas, canyons, fields and roadsides where some water is available throughout the year. Its pink fruits are sold as peppercorns, but they may be toxic to humans and animals if too many are eaten. In California, Brazilian peppertree is not yet a very large problem, but is has been a very aggressive invader in tropical areas like Hawaii and Florida. In order to control peppertree infestations, tree roots must be removed or killed, and seedlings must be controlled by hand-pulling for at least three years.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/schismus-arabicus-profile/Schismus arabicus Mediterranean grass; Arabian schismus Limited7380 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Schismus-arabicus_Arabian-Mediterranean-grass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Schismus arabicus (Mediterranean grass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) found mostly in disturbed areas and deserts. It is difficult to distinguish from its close relative Schismus barbatus. Both species contribute to the conversion of desert shrubland into annual grassland by carrying fire across open areas, where they ignite and kill native shrubs.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/schismus-barbatus-profile/Schismus barbatus common Mediterranean grass; Old han schismus Limited7381 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Schismus-barbatus_common-mediterranean-grass_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo courtesy Ron Vanderhoff" Schismus barbatus (common Mediterranean grass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) found mostly in disturbed areas and deserts. It is difficult to distinguish from its close relative Schismus arabicus.  Both species contribute to the conversion of desert shrubland into annual grassland by carrying fire across open areas, where they ignite and kill native shrubs.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/scolymus-hispanicus-profile/Scolymus hispanicus goldenthistle WatchA*7417 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Scolymus-hispanicus_C030-14.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Scolymus hispanicus (goldenthistle) is a herb/ (family Asteraceae) with yellow flowers and spiny narrow leaves found in the central western ranges of California. It is native to Europe. It grows in grasslands. It propagates by seed. The spiny seed heads can get caught in wool, carried by wind and spread by agricultural equipment.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/senecio-glomeratus-profile/Senecio glomeratusErechtites glomeratus, Erechtities glomerata cutleaf burnweed, cutleaf fireweed, New Zealand fireweed, Australian burnweed, bushman's burnweed, cut-leaved coast fireweed, Australian fireweed, little fireweed, coastal burnweed, Australian burnweed, toothed coast fireweed Moderate10688 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Erechtites-glomerata_cutleaf-burnweed_J.M.-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Senecio glomeratus (cutleaf burnweed) is an annual or short-lived perennial in the Asteraceae family. It is among the most serious plant pests on the Channel Islands and also occurs along the mainland California coast. Cutleaf burnweed moves quickly into disturbed areas and is widespread in disturbed sites within North Coast redwood forests. It can also invade undisturbed grasslands.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/senecio-jacobaea-profile/Senecio jacobaea tansy ragwort; stinking willie; stavewort; kettle-dock; felonweed; Fairies' horse; tansy butterweed; staggerwort LimitedB*7508 200 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Senecio-jacobaea_tansy-ragwort_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Senecio jacobaea (tansy ragwort) is a noxious biennial, perennial, or winter annual forb/herb (family Asteraceae) found in northern California, along disturbed places, roadsides, and waste sites. This plant is poisonous if consumed by forage animals. Bees foraging on tansy ragwort produce bitter honey that is tainted with alkaloids.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/senecio-linearifolius-profile/Senecio linearifolius fireweed groundsel WatchB*12149 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Senecio-linearifolius_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpeg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Senecio linearifolius (fireweed groundsel) is a herb/subshrub (family Asteraceae) with yellow flowers and narrow leaves found in the south coast ranges of California. It is native to Australia. It favors grasslands and dunes. It spreads via seeds which travel by wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/sesbania-punicea-profile/Sesbania puniceaSesbania punicea, Sesbania tripetii, Daubentonia punicea scarlet wisteria; red sesbania; rattlebox; Chinese wisteria HighB*8578 41 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Sesbania_punicea_FWallace.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Sesbania-punicea_scarlet-wisteria-fruits_Mona-Robison_cropped-scaled.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Sesbania-punicea_scarlet-wisteria-habit_Mona-Robison_cropped-scaled.jpg" "Photo: Frank Wallace","Sesbania punicea, scarlet wisteria, fruits. Photo: Mona Robison","Sesbania punicea, scarlet wisteria, growth habit, Photo: Mona Robison" Sesbania punicea (red sesbania, scarlet wisteria) is a deciduous shrub or small tree (family Fabaceae), up to 4 meters tall. Sesbania punicea is mostly found in riparian areas in the Central Valley, forming clusters so thick that access to the river becomes difficult to impossible. It displaces native plants used by wildlife and contributes to bank erosion and flooding.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/silybum-marianum-profile/Silybum marianumCarduus marianus L., Carduus mariae Crantz, Cirsium maculatum Scop., Cathamus maculatum (Scop.) Lam., Silybum maculatum (Scop.) Moench, Silybum mariae (Crantz) Gray, Mariana lactea Hill milk thistle; variegated thistle; blessed milk thistle; Virgin Mary's thistle; Lady's milk; Holy thistle; spotted thistle; cabbage thistle; spotted thistle; St. Mary's thistle; white thistle Limited7622 98 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Silybum-marianum_blessed-milkthistle_flower_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Silybum marianum (blessed milk thistle) is a winter annual or biennial with prickly leaves (family Asteraceae). It is widely spread throughout California in overgrazed pastures and along fencelines and other disturbed areas. Blessed milk thistle produces tall, dense stands that outcompete native species.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/sinapis-arvensis-profile/Sinapis arvensisBrassica arvensis, Brassica kaber wild mustard; canola; charlock mustard; common mustard; crunch-weed; field kale; field mustard; kedlock; rapeseed Limited7625 42 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Sinapis-arvensis_wild-mustard_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard, charlock)

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/sisymbrium-irio-profile/Sisymbrium irio London rocket Limited7628 201 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Sisymbrium-irio_London-rocket_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Sisymbrium irio (London rocket) is a winter annual forb/herb (family Brassicaceae), which can be found in abandoned fields, waste places, roadsides, and orchards. It matures earlier in the year than native species, allowing it to out-compete them.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/solanum-aviculare-profile/Solanum aviculare New Zealand nightshade Watch7648 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Solanum-aviculare_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Solanum aviculare (New Zealand nightshade) is a subshrub/shrub (family Solanaceae) with purple flowers and narrow leaves found in the coastal ranges and desert ranges of California. It is native to Australasia. It favors forests and grasslands. It propagates by seeds which are dispersed via birds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/solanum-carolinense-profile/Solanum carolinense Carolina horsenettle WatchB*7649 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Solanum-carolinense_C247-04.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Solanum carolinense (Carolina horsenettle) is a perennial herb/ (family Solanaceae) with white to purple flowers and lobed leaves found in the Sierra Nevada range, Central Valley, south coast ranges and northern ranges of California. It is native to the central and eastern United States and northern Mexico. It favors grasslands and dunes. It spreads via seeds and roots. Fruits and seeds are dispersed by agricultural activities, water, soil movement and animals.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/spartina-alterniflora-x-spartina-foliosa/Spartina alterniflora x S. foliosa smooth hybrid cordgrass HighB*10746 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spartina-alterniflora_smooth-cordgrass_Donald-Strong_cropped.jpg","https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spartina-alterniflora_smooth-cordgrass_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Donald Strong","Spartina alterniflora, smooth cordgrass, inflorescence. Photo: JM DiTomaso" Spartina alterniflora (and S. alterniflora x foliosa hybrids) (smooth cordgrass) is a rhizomatous perennial grass (family Poaceae) found in salt marshes and mudflats in the San Francisco Estuary and associated waterways. Smooth cordgrass spreads more rapidly, grows more densely, and tolerates higher water levels than native California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The two cordgrasses are known to hybridize, a process which may threaten the survival of pure strains of California cordgrass. A single smooth cordgrass plant may spread clonally in concentric circles to become a dense circular patch of up to 20 meters in diameter. The invasive cordgrass does not provide suitable habitat for native salt marsh shorebirds.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/spartina-anglica-profile/Spartina anglica English cordgrass ModerateB*8699 44 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spartina-anglica_common-cordgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Spartina anglica (common cordgrass) is a rhizomatous perennial grass (family Poaceae) found in salt marshes and mudflats in northern San Francisco Bay. Common cordgrass is a recently evolved species that was first described in the late 1800s. The new species resulted from the hybridization of smooth cordgrass (S. alterniflora) and small cordgrass (S. maritima) in England. Spartina anglica can transform tidal mudflats into drier, elevated meadows over time. This has not yet occurred in the infested site in the San Francisco Bay, where the species has been spreading slowly since its introduction in 1970.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/spartina-densiflora-profile/Spartina densiflora dense-flowered cordgrass; Chilean cordgrass. HighB*7700 45 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spartina-densiflora_dense-flowered-cordgrass_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Spartina densiflora (dense-flowered cordgrass) is a rhizomatous perennial grass (family Poaceae) found in salt marshes in Humboldt Bay and San Francisco Bay. Dense-flowered cordgrass may have been introduced to Humboldt Bay from Chile by lumber ships in the 19th century. It tolerates high salinity and grows especially well in higher tidal marsh, where it is known to displace native pickleweed (Salicornia pacifica) and native California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The species\' abundant seed has the potential to disperse over long distances by floating on water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/spartina-patens-profile/Spartina patensSpartina versicolor (Spain) Salt marsh hay LimitedB*7703 46 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spartina-patens_salt-meadow-cordgrass_-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Spartina patens (saltmeadow cordgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) whose current known distribution in California is limited to one location in the saltmarshes of the northwestern San Francisco Bay area near Corte Madera. Saltmeadow cordgrass is native to the southeastern United States, and is listed as a noxious weed in Washington state. Like other cordgrasses, saltmeadow cordgrass reproduces both by seed and vegetatively, with rhizomes. Even small fragments of rhizomes can resprout to form new plants. Although the invasion of saltmeadow cordgrass has only had minor impacts in California, it has the potential to spread and has been shown to cause significant impacts in other locations.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/spartium-junceum-profile/Spartium junceum Spanish broom HighC*7704 47 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spartium-junceum_Spanish-broom_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) is a deciduous shrub (family Fabaceae) found throughout the western part of California. Spanish broom was introduced as a landscape ornamental and was planted along highways to prevent soil erosion. It may grow into monospecific stands, excluding native species. Broom is unpalatable to most livestock except goats, so it decreases rangeland value, while increasing fire hazards. These leguminous plants produce copious amounts of seed, and may resprout from the root crown if cut or grazed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/sphaerophysa-salsula-profile/Sphaerophysa salsula alkali swainsonpea WatchA*7734 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Sphaerophysa-salsula_C135-02.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Sphaerophysa salsula (alkali swainsonpea) is a perennial herb/ (family Fabaceae) with red flowers and small oval-shaped leaves found in the San Joaquin Valley in California. It is native to Asia. It favors grasslands. It spreads via water and contaminated alfalfa seed.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/stipa-brachychaeta-profile/Stipa brachychaeta punagrass WatchA*12041 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Stipa-brachychaeta_Dean-Kelch_CDFA.jpeg" "Photo by Dean Kelch" Stipa brachychaeta (punagrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be more than 2 feet tall and is found in the Central Valley and the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to South America. It favors grasslands, woodlands, and riparian and bottomland habitat. It spreads via seed and vegetatively from creeping roots. Water helps this plant disperse.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/stipa-capensis-profile/Stipa capensisAchnatum capense Cape ricegrass Moderate8700 142 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Stipa-capensis_Mediterranean-steppegrass_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Stipa capensis (Mediterranean steppegrass or twisted-awned speargrass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) found in the Coachella Valley of the Sonoran Desert. It has the potential to become widespread, and is already spreading rapidly in the Palm Springs area. If Mediterranean steppegrass does become more widespread, it has the potential to be a very serious fire hazard in California desert ecosystems. The sharp florets of the plant can injure animals, and may attach to their fur as a dispersal mechanism. This invasive grass may also decrease native wildflower abundance.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/stipa-manicata-profile/Stipa manicataNassella manicata (Desv.) Barkworth; Nassella formicarum auct. non (Delile) BarkworthStipa formicarum Delile Andean tussockgrass; tropical needlegrass Limited12056 12056 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Stipa-manicata_tropical-needlegrass_Eric-Wrubel_NPS.jpg" "Photo courtesy Eric Wrubel/NPS" Stipa manicata (= Nassella manicata (tropical needlegrass) is a perennial (family Poaceae) found in Northern California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/piptatherum-miliaceum-profile/Stipa miliacea var. miliaceaPiptatherum miliaceum; Agrostis miliacea L., Oryzopsis miliacea smilo grass; bamboo grass; milo; ricegrass; rice millet; millet mountain-rice; San Diego grass Limited12058 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Piptatherum-miliaceum_Smilograss_Joseph-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Stipa miliacea var. miliacea (smilograss) is a tufted perennial grass (family Poaceae) that thrives in dry or moist sites in disturbed areas, along roadsides and ditches. It can be found scattered along California\'s coast and central valley and appears to be increasing in riparian areas and canyons, especially in southern California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/stipa-tenuissima-profile/Stipa tenuissima Mexican feathergrass WatchC8685 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Stipa-tennuisima_Mexican-feathergrass_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo courtesy Ron Vanderhoff" Stipa tenuissima (Mexican feathergrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be 2 feet tall and is found in the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to Mexico, Texas, Argentina and Chile. It favors grasslands and woodlands. It spreads only by seeds which are dispersed by livestock, humans, wind and water. Seeds adhere to clothing and fur.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tamarix-aphylla-profile/Tamarix aphyllaT. articulata Vahl., T. orientalis Forssk., Thuja aphylla L. athel; athel pine; tamarisk; evergreen saltcedar LimitedB7913 144 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tamarix-aphylla_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Tamarix aphylla (athel tamarisk) is a shrub or a tree (family Tamaricaceae) found along streams and lakeshores throughout California. Tamarix aphylla and other tamarisk species were introduced as landscape ornamentals. Athel tamarisk is still widely planted as an ornamental species in southern California but is less invasive than other tamarisk species. It has escaped cultivation in the San Joaquin Valley, eastern South Coast, and desert regions of California.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tamarix-chinensis-profile/Tamarix chinensisTamarix juniperina, Tamarix pentandra Chinese tamarisk, fivestamen tamarisk HighB*7914 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tamarix-chinensis_chinese-tamarisk_Robert-Sivinski.jpg" "Photo courtesy Robert Sivinski" Tamarix chinensis (Chinese tamarisk) is a shrub or a tree (family Tamaricaceae) and can be found along streams and lake shores, throughout California. Tamarix chinensis is associated with dramatic changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity. It may also hybridize with Tamarix gallica or Tamarix ramosissima.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tamarix-gallica-profile/Tamarix gallica French tamarisk HighB*7915 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tamarix-gallica_French-tamarisk_Patricia-Kreitz.jpg" "Photo courtesy Patricia Kreitz" Tamarix gallica (French tamarisk) is a shrub or a tree (family Tamaricaceae) which can be found along streams and lake shores, throughout California. Tamarix gallica is associated with dramatic changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity. It may also hybridize with Tamarix ramosissima or Tamarix chinensis.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tamarix-parviflora-plant-profile/Tamarix parvifloraTamarix cretica Bge., Tamarix lucronensis Sennen & Elias, Tamarix petteri Presl ex Bge., Tamarix rubella Batt., Tamarix tetranda auct. non Pall., others. Plants are sometimes sold in California as Tamarix africana Poir, which is a different species. smallflower tamarisk HighB*7916 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tamarix-parviflora_smallflower-tamarisk_JM-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso" Tamarix parviflora (smallflower tamarisk) is a shrub or a tree (family Tamaricaceae) and can be found along streams and lake shores, throughout California. Tamarix species are associated with dramatic changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tamarix-ramosissima-profile/Tamarix ramosissimaTamarix juniperina; Tamarix pentandra Saltcedar; tamarisk HighB*7917 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tamarix-ramosissima_saltcedar_Joe-DiTomaso_cropped.jpg","" "Photo: Joseph DiTomaso","" Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar, tamarisk) is a shrub or a tree (family Tamaricaceae) which can be found along streams and lake shores, throughout California. Tamarix ramosissima is associated with dramatic changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity. It may hybridize with Tamarix gallica or Tamarix chinensis.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tanacetum-vulgare-profile/Tanacetum vulgare common tansy; golden buttons; garden tansy Moderate7920 202 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tanacetum-vulgare_common-tansy_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso"

Tanacetum vulgare (common tansy) is a perennial herb (family Asteraceae) found in the Coastal Ranges, Cascade Range and along the north coast of California. Common tansy inhabits riparian areas, forests, and disturbed places, including urban areas, fields, and roadsides. This European native is cultivated as a landscape ornamental and as a medicinal herb. Taken in great quantities, common tansy can be fatally toxic to humans and animals, and some individuals may experience an allergic reaction after handling the foliage. Common tansy reproduces by seed and vegetatively. It is known to produce dense colonies via its extensive creeping root system, especially in riparian areas.

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tetragonia-tetragonioides-profile/Tetragonia tetragonioidesTetragonia tetragonoides, Demidovia tetragonoides Pall. (basionym), Tetragonia expansa Murray New Zealand spinach; warrigal greens Limited7945 7945 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tetragonia_tetragonioides_By-Ixitixel.jpg" "Photo courtesy of Ixitixel (eigene Arbeit, selbst fotografiert) CC-BY-SA-3.0 via Wikimedia Commons" Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach) is a species (family Aizoaceae) found throughout California on sand dunes, bluffs, and the margins of coastal wetlands.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/thinopyrum-junceiforme-profile/Thinopyrum junceiforme Russian wheatgrass Watch10422 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Thinopyrum-junceiforme_Jose-Hernandez-Wikimedia.jpg" "Photo by Jose Hernandez" Thinopyrum junceiforme (Russian wheatgrass) is a perennial grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be 3 feet tall and is found in the San Francisco Bay area and south coast ranges of California. It is native to Europe and Russia. It grows in dunes, grasslands, alkaline areas and along roadsides. It spreads via seeds and rhizomes. Seeds are dispersed externally on animals and by water and wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/torilis-arvensis-profile/Torilis arvensis hedgeparsley; spreading hedgeparsley Moderate8004 147 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Torilis-arvensis_hedge-parsley_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Torilis arvensis (hedgeparsely) (family Apiaceae) occurs throughout California in disturbed sites and woodlands. It has small hooks on the mature fruit, which and cling to clothing, hair or fur, facilitating long distance dispersal.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/triadica-sebifera-plant-profile/Triadica sebiferaSapium sebiferum; Croton sebiferum, Excoecaria sebifera, Stillingia sebifera, Triadica sinensis Chinese tallow tree; popcorn tree; chicken tree; Florida aspen; Vegetable tallow; white wax berry Moderate12096 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Triadica-sebifera_Chinese-tallow-tree_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpg" "Photo courtesy Ron Vanderhoff" Sapium sebiferum (=Triadica sebifera) (Chinese tallowtree) is a deciduous tree (family Euphorbiaceae) that invades wildland areas and rapidly replaces the natural communities. Originally planted as a shade tree in urban areas, it can threaten wildlife habitat and crowd out native vegetation. It is only beginning to invade riparian areas of California, but is considered a major invasive species in the southern forests.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/tribulus-terrestris-profile/Tribulus terrestrisTribulus bimucronatus; Tribulus lanuginosus; Tribulus saharae; Tribulus terrestris var. sericeus puncture vine; puncturevine, goat's head LimitedC*8024 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Tribulus-terrestris_C254-03.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine) is an annual herb (family Zygophyllaceae) with yellow-white flowers and narrow hairy leaves found all over California. It is native to the Mediterranean. It favors grasslands and dunes. It propagates by seed. Seeds are dispersed via water, wool, vehicles and agricultural activities.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/trifolium-hirtum-profile/Trifolium hirtum rose clover Limited8081 203 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Trifolium-hirtum_rose-clover_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Trifolium hirtum (rose clover) is an annual forb/herb (family Fabaceae) commonly found in California, blanketing dry rangelands. Rose clover out competes indigenous clover and native grasses and can tolerate dryer soils and frost. It was intentionally introduced as grassland forage and in most rangeland systems is not considered weedy. However, in wildlands, it can out-compete native clovers.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ulex-europaeus-profile/Ulex europaeusUlex europaea gorse; common gorse; furze; prickly broom HighB*8395 48 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ulex-europaeus_gorse_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Ulex europaeus (gorse) is a woody leguminous shrub (family Fabaceae). In California Ulex europaeus can be found in coastal counties and the northern Sierra Nevada foothills. It invades infertile or disturbed sites, sand dunes, gravel bars, fence rows, overgrazed pastures, logged areas, and burned-over areas. Besides becoming a significant fire hazard, it can successfully out compete native plants in part because of its association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which facilitate its colonization of nitrogen-poor soils.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/undaria-pinnatifida-profile/Undaria pinnatifida Japanese kelp; wakame; Asian seaweed Limited13037 204 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Undaria_pinnatifida_CThornber.jpg" "Photo courtesy Carol Thornber, Univ. Rhode Island" Undaria pinnatifida (wakame) is an annual algae (family Alariaceae) first recorded in several estuaries in California in 2000. Wakame is native to Japan, where it is consumed for its food value and as a nutritional supplement. In California, wakame usually cannot compete with native perennial brown algae, but it may colonize estuaries rapidly if native algae are not present. Hence, wakame occurs in high densities only in recently disturbed areas. Although it does not appear to have serious impacts in California, it has been a very serious invader in New Zealand.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/ventenata-dubia-profile/Ventenata dubia North Africa grass Watch8219 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ventenata-dubia_Steve-Matson.jpeg" "Photo by Steve Matson" Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass) is an annual grass (family Poaceae) that can grow to be more than 1 foot tall and is found in the coastal and inland ranges of northern California. It is native to central and southern Europe. It occurs in grasslands. It reproduces via seed. The long awns attach to humans animals and machinery.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/verbascum-thapsus-profile/Verbascum thapsus woolly mullein; common mullein; lungwort; feltwort; torches; Jacob's staff; velvetplant; old man's flannel; miner's candle Limited8226 205 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Verbascum-thapsus_common-mullein_flower-JM-Di-Tomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Verbascum thapsus (common mullein, woolly mullein) is a biennial or annual forb (family Scrophulariaceae) that occurs throughout California, but is particularly abundant in dry valleys on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada. High population densities have been observed in moist meadows and creek drainages near Mono Lake and Owens Valley. Common mullein is a host for insects that are themselves economic pests. Common mullein seeds can survive for 35 years or more in the soil.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/verbena-bonariensis-profile/Verbena bonariensis tall vervain Watch8228 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Verbena-bonariensis_S58-02.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Verbena bonariensis (tall vervain) is a herb/ (family Verbenaceae) with purple flowers and narrow toothed leaves found in the Central Valley and the central and south coast ranges of California. It is native to South America. It favors grasslands and riparian and bottomland habitat. It readily self-seeds and is dispersed via animals, wind and water.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/vinca-major-profile/Vinca majorVinca pubescenes, Vinca major var.variegata periwinkle; bigleaf periwinkle; greater periwinkle; blue periwinkle; myrtle Moderate8280 148 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Vinca-major_big-periwinkle_JM-DiTomaso.jpg" "Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso" Vinca major (big periwinkle) is a spreading perennial vine or ground cover (family Apocynaceae) with dark green stems that contain milky latex. In California it is rapidly spreading in most coastal counties, foothill woodlands, the Central Valley, and even desert areas. Big periwinkle has escaped from garden plantings, and lowers species diversity and disrupts native plant communities. Riparian zones are particularly sensitive. Fragments of periwinkle vines can break, wash downstream, and start new invasions.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/volutaria-tubuliflora-profile/Volutaria tubulifloraAmberboa atlantica; Volutaria lippii subsp. tubuliflora desert knapweed; Mediterranean knapweed LimitedA*13055 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Volutaria-tubuliflora_Ron-Vanderhoff.jpeg" "Photo by Ron Vanderhoff" Volutaria tubuliflora (desert knapweed) is an annual herb (family Asteraceae) with pink-purple flowers and lobed hairy leaves found in the desert ranges and south coast ranges of California. It is native to northern Africa and the Mediterranean Basin. It favors grasslands, dunes, scrub and chaparral habitat. It propagates via multitudes of seeds. Seeds are dispersed via human traffic, machinery, water and wind.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/washingtonia-robusta-profile/Washingtonia robustaW. filamentosa (often mistaken for native W. filifera) Mexican fan palm; Washington palm; skyduster; thread palm Moderate9271 99 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Washingtonia-Robusta.jpg" "Photos: USDA and Mike Kelly" Washingtonia robusta (Mexican fan palm) is a single-trunked palm tree (family Arecaceae) found in the San Francisco Bay area, southern Sacramento Valley and on California’s south coast. Mexican fan palm is a common landscape ornamental that has become invasive in riparian areas, orchards and landscaped areas. This palm is known to create monospecific stands in riparian areas, and dead fronds of the tree can create a fire hazard. The species can be controlled with relative ease by removing the seedlings.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/watsonia-meriana-profile/Watsonia merianaWatsonia bulbullifera Mathews & L. Bolus; Watsonia meriana (L.) Miller var. bulbullifera Mathews & L. Bolus; Watsonia bulbifera; Watsonia angusta auct. non Ker-Gawl. bulbil watsonia; watsonia LimitedB10457 100 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Watsonia_meriana_MIttner.jpg" "Photo courtesy Mary Ittner and Bob Rutemolle" Watsonia meriana (bulbil watsonia) is a perennial flowering herb (family Iridaceae) found in disturbed areas, coastal prairies and coniferous forests along the northern coast of California. This corm-forming, ornamental, South African native reproduces by growing bulblets. Bulbil watsonia, which is generally avoided by wildlife as a food source, forms dense patches that may crowd out other plants. Bulbil watsonia infestations tend to spread slowly on their own, but they may establish new populations by human movement of plant material and soil.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/zantesdeschia-aethiopica-profile/Zantedeschia aethiopica calla lily; arum lily Limited8380 101 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Zantedeschia_aethiopica_calla-lilly-by-Manfred-Heyde-Wikipedia-commons.jpg" "Photo by Manfred Heyde via Wikimedia Commons" Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily) is a perennial (family Araceae) found along the coast of California, in the North and South Coast Ranges, and in the San Francisco Bay area. Native to South Africa, calla lily is grown as an ornamental plant, and most invading populations are found near human habitations in coastal prairies and wetlands. Calla lily reproduces by bird-dispersed seeds and vegetatively via rhizomes, which may be spread by moving soil or garden cuttings. In western Australia and New Zealand, calla lily is an aggressive invader of riparian areas and pastureland.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/zostera-japonica-profile/Zostera japonicaNanozostera japonica (Asch. & Graebn.) P. Toml. & U. Posl. dwarf eelgrass; Japanese eelgrass ModerateA*10723 10723 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Nanozostera_japonica_CAseagrant-e1508441599768.jpg" "Photo courtesy: California Sea Grant" Zostera japonica (=Nanozostera japonica, dwarf eelgrass) is an aquatic plant that forms dense stands in shallow, sheltered bays and estuaries. Populations of Z. japonica have been found in Humboldt County. Z. japonica often invades areas with little or no natural or human disturbance and also shows a positive relationship with disturbance. Z. japonica lives as an annual, overwintering as buried seeds, or a short-lived perennial. It reproduces vegetatively through rhizomatous cloning and sexually through seed production. The dispersal of the seeds, both within and between estuaries, may be aided by waterfowl species.  Z. japonica has been shown to rapidly expand in the spring and summer.
https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/zygophyllum-fabago-profile/Zygophyllum fabago Syrian beancaper WatchA*8394 "https://www.cal-ipc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Zygophyllum-fabago_C255-02.jpg" "Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California" Zygophyllum fabago (Syrian beancaper) is a perennial herb/subshrub (family Zygophyllaceae) with white to orange flowers and oval shaped leaves found in the San Joaquin Valley, desert ranges and central coast ranges of California. It is native to the Mediterranean and central Asia. It favors grasslands and dunes. It spreads via seeds and root suckers. Agricultural activities help disperse this plant.