Salpichroa origanifolia_Zoya Akulova
Photo by Zoya Akulova

Salpichroa origanifolia Risk Assessment

Common names: lily of the valley vine

Salpichroa origanifolia -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
April 14, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
2 Hours
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in Africa: Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands; Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Australasia: Australia: Australia; New Zealand: New Zealand; Europe: Northern Europe: United Kingdom; Southeastern Europe: Italy; Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain; Northern America: Mexico; South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas; Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida, - Georgia, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Virginia; Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California (Germplasm Resources Information Network).
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in Africa: Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands; Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Australasia: Australia: Australia; New Zealand: New Zealand; Europe: Northern Europe: United Kingdom; Southeastern Europe: Italy; Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain; Northern America: Mexico; South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas; Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida, - Georgia, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Virginia; Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California (Germplasm Resources Information Network). Very high overlap with California climate zones (Cal-IPC global map of climate areas matching California).
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales and Victoria, and as a potential environmental weed in Tasmania. It was recently listed as a priority environmental weed in at least one Natural Resource Management region (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition). In Tasmania, it is regarded as a toxic weed and its sale and distribution are illegal (Wikipedia).
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales and Victoria, and as a potential environmental weed in Tasmania. It was recently listed as a priority environmental weed in at least one Natural Resource Management region (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition). In Tasmania, it is regarded as a toxic weed and its sale and distribution are illegal (Wikipedia; Tasmanian Government Invasive Species). Overlap with California climate zones (Cal-IPC global map of climate areas matching California).
Reference(s): 
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
An exhaustive Google/Google Scholar search did not reveal any evidence of congeneric weeds, and this defaults to a “no” answer at this time.
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Native to the temperate regions of South America (i.e. southern Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay) (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition). A weed of gardens, roadsides, urban bushland, waste areas, disturbed sites, fences and coastal environs in temperate, semi-arid and occasionally also sub-tropical environments. Naturalized in Africa: Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands; Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Australasia: Australia: Australia; New Zealand: New Zealand; Europe: Northern Europe: United Kingdom; Southeastern Europe: Italy; Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain; Northern America: Mexico; South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas; Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida, - Georgia, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Virginia; Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California (Germplasm Resources Information Network). Very high overlap with California climate zones (Cal-IPC global map of climate areas matching California).
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
“Once firmly established pampas lily-of-the-valley smothers all other vegetation, killing large shrubs and fruit trees.” On cultural sites it would have a moderate visual effect ({VRO} - Impact Assessment - Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) in Victoria (Nox)).
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
No evidence to suggest the plant would support fire or its establishment. Increase in biomass may result in a minor change to the frequency of fire ({VRO} - Impact Assessment - Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) in Victoria (Nox)). An exhaustive Google/Google Scholar search did not reveal any additional evidence of fire promotion or changes to fire regimes, and this defaults to a “no” answer at this time.
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
“It is claimed to be poisonous to stock but no losses have been reported in Australia. The fruit is sometimes used in preserves and is sold I the markets of Argentina and Paraguay for this purpose.” Consider harmless ({VRO} - Impact Assessment - Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) in Victoria (Nox)). Possibly toxic but no losses have been recorded (Herbiguide). An exhaustive Google/Google Scholar search did not reveal any evidence of mortality or poisoning, and this defaults to a “no” answer at this time.
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
A semi-erect, semi-prostrate perennial vine, with stems to 3 metres in length. Unlikely to impeded individual access ({VRO} - Impact Assessment - Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) in Victoria (Nox)). Grows 12-18" (Dave's Garden). An exhaustive Google/Google Scholar search did not reveal any evidence of thicket-formation or blockage of movement, and this defaults to a “no” answer at this time.
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
This species reproduces by seeds and vegetatively from creeping underground stems (i.e. rhizomes) and suckering roots (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition).
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Root fragments and pieces of underground stems (i.e. rhizomes) are spread during soil moving activities and in dumped garden waste (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition). It is spread by seed and root fragments, so dumping vegetation waste can be a problem (PAMPAS LILY OF THE VALLEY Fact Sheet).
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
This species reproduces by seeds and vegetatively from creeping underground stems (i.e. rhizomes) and suckering roots (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition).
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Pampas lily-of-the-valley produces 100 berries per plant with 20 seeds contained in each berry resulting in at least 2,000 seeds per plant (Agriculture Victoria).
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds germinate in spring to early summer (Tasmanian Government Invasive Species). High levels of germination occur rapidly (Invasive Species in Botanical Garden of Ajuda (Portugal)).
Reference(s): 
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Low
Answer / Justification: 
Due to the rapid growth rate of this perennial herb, assumed to be around two years after germination ({VRO} - Impact Assessment - Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) in Victoria (Nox)). However, an exhaustive Google/Google Scholar search did not reveal any information on time to seed production, and this remains unanswered at this time.
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Blooms July - October (Calflora; Jepson).
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
The seeds are brown to pale yellow in colour, flattened, rounded in shape (about 2 mm across), and surrounded in a sticky substance. Root fragments and pieces of underground stems (i.e. rhizomes) are spread during soil moving activities and in dumped garden waste. Seeds are dispersed by similar activities as well as by animals that eat the fruit (e.g. birds, rats, mice and ants) (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition).
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Not an aquatic plant and no morphological adaptations that would make this likely to be dispersed via wind or water. An exhaustive Google/Google Scholar search did not reveal any evidence of dispersal by these mechanisms, and this defaults to a “no” answer at this time.
Reference(s): 
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
The seeds are brown to pale yellow in colour, flattened, rounded in shape (about 2 mm across), and surrounded in a sticky substance. Root fragments and pieces of underground stems (i.e. rhizomes) are spread during soil moving activities and in dumped garden waste. Seeds are dispersed by similar activities as well as by animals that eat the fruit (e.g. birds, rats, mice and ants) (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition).
Reference(s): 
Evaluation Notes

Reviewed by Gina Darin (Gina.Darin@water.ca.gov, CA Dept of Water Resources) and Ron Vanderhoff (rvanderhoff@sbcglobal.net, CA Native Plant Society- Orange
Co. Chapter).

The following webpages were consulted for this screen: Tropicos: http://www.tropicos.org/Name/29604942; GBIF: http://www.gbif.org/species/2928796; ARS GRIN: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?102338; Calflora: http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=7292; USDA-NRCS: http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=SAOR4; Jepson: http://herbaria4.herb.berkeley.edu/eflora_display.php?tid=43020; Natural History: http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Solanaceae/Salpichroa%20origanifolia... Boroonda City of Harmony: https://www.boroondara.vic.gov.au/-/media/Files/Imported/W/Weeds%20Broch... spread by seed Weeds of Australia: https://www.boroondara.vic.gov.au/-/media/Files/Imported/W/Weeds%20Broch... {VRO} - Impact Assessment - Pampas lily-of-the-valley (Salpichroa origanifolia) in Victoria (Nox): http://vro.agriculture.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/impact_pampa... CABI: http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/116862; Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salpichroa_origanifolia; Dave’s Garden: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/127561/; Tasmanian Govt Invasive Species: http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/invasive-species/weeds/weeds-index/weeds-index-... PAMPAS LILY OF THE VALLEY Fact Sheet: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&cad=rja&... Herbiguide: http://www.herbiguide.com.au/Descriptions/hg_Pampas_LilyoftheValley.htm; Invasive Species in Botanical Garden of Ajuda (Portugal): http://www.bgci.org/congress/congress_eurogard2006/invasive_garden_AJUDA...

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
19
Number of questions answered: 
19
Screener Confidence (%): 
74.7
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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