Orobanche aegyptiaca Risk Assessment

Common names: Egyptian broomrape

Orobanche aegyptiaca -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
October 2, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
3 Hours
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptiaca occurs in one location in California (Calflora). It is native to the Middle East and also occurs in Ukraine (DAISIE), Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran (GBIF).
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptiaca occurs in one location in California (Calflora). It is native to the Middle East and also occurs in Ukraine (DAISIE), Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran (GBIF). It occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in locations which match the climate of California according to the Cal-IPC climate map.
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
O. ramosa (and by inference O. aegyptiaca) can cause severe damage to important agricultural crops and prove very difficult to eradicate. All Orobanche are considered invasive where they occur, including their native range.
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
O. ramosa (and by inference O. aegyptiaca) can cause severe damage to important agricultural crops and prove very difficult to eradicate. All Orobanche are considered invasive where they occur, including their native range. O. aegyptiaca occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in locations which match the climate of California according to the Cal-IPC climate map.
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
O. ramosa is also an invasive member of the Orobanche and causes economic damage to crops (CABI). O. ramosa occurs naturally in Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, extending eastwards to India, Pakistan and China, central Asia and southern Russia but has also been introduced to the USA, Cuba, Central America, Australia, West Africa, East Africa, South Africa and Chile (CABI). O. ramosa occurs in areas in South America, South Africa and Europe with climate which matches California (Cal-IPC).
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptiaca occurs predominantly in areas which match the climate of California (GBIF and Cal-IPC).
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptiaca is a crop parasite and so does not often occur in natural area or dominate native plant communities.
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
There is no information on whether O. aegyptiaca promotes or changes fire regimes, but since it is a crop weed this is unlikely.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
There is no information on the toxicity of O. aegyptiaca, and the species is not noted as impacting grazing systems.
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptica plants occur in agricultural fields and are attached to crop plants. They are up to 40 cm tall so would not block the movement of humans or animals.
Reference(s): 
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptiaca reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
O. aegyptiaca reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
A capsule [of O. ramosa and by inference O. aegyptiaca] develops up to 6-10 mm long and may contain several hundred seeds, each about 0.2 x 0.4 mm. A single plant carries ten to several hundred flowers and hence may produce up to a quarter million seeds.
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
A capsule [of O. ramosa and by inference O. aegyptiaca] develops up to 6-10 mm long and may contain several hundred seeds, each about 0.2 x 0.4 mm. A single plant carries ten to several hundred flowers and hence may produce up to a quarter million seeds.
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
A capsule [of O. ramosa and by inference O. aegyptiaca] develops up to 6-10 mm long and may contain several hundred seeds, each about 0.2 x 0.4 mm. A single plant carries ten to several hundred flowers and hence may produce up to a quarter million seeds. Seeds germinate in the presence of host plants, otherwise they remain dormant in the soil until a suitable host is present. Seeds may remain viable in soil for many years, possibly 10 or more, and certainly for 5 years in many situations.
Reference(s): 
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds are produced yearly in the presence of host plants.
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
The very small seeds may very easily be moved from one field to another by water, wind, animals and man. The seeds remain viable after passing through the alimentary system of animals; therefore manure may be contaminated with viable Orobanche seeds. Agricultural products of various crops may carry Orobanche seeds if harvested in an infested field (CABI).
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
The very small seeds may very easily be moved from one field to another by water, wind, animals and man. The seeds remain viable after passing through the alimentary system of animals; therefore manure may be contaminated with viable Orobanche seeds. Agricultural products of various crops may carry Orobanche seeds if harvested in an infested field (CABI).
Reference(s): 
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
The very small seeds may very easily be moved from one field to another by water, wind, animals and man. The seeds remain viable after passing through the alimentary system of animals; therefore manure may be contaminated with viable Orobanche seeds. Agricultural products of various crops may carry Orobanche seeds if harvested in an infested field (CABI).
Reference(s): 
Evaluation Notes

The biology and distribution of O aegyptiaca is similar to that of O. ramosa, so information on O. ramosa was used to answer some questions.

CABI for O. aegyptiaca: http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/37742

CABI for O. ramosa: http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/37747

Reviewed by Irina Irvine.

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
19
Number of questions answered: 
20
Screener Confidence (%): 
86.0
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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