Geranium lucidum_Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy
Photo by Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Geranium lucidum Risk Assessment

Common names: shining geranium

Geranium lucidum -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
April 14, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
1 Hour
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in Oregon, Washington, and California (Humboldt and Del Norte Counties). Possibly also in the Netherlands (reference in Global Compendium of Weeds pointing to the European DAISIE website). On the Washington state noxious weed list. "Recently established" in Washington. Shiny geranium grows in well-shaded woodlands and forest openings as well as in full to partial sun. GBIF also lists as naturalized in Canada.
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in Oregon, Washington, and California (Humboldt and Del Norte Counties). On the Washington state noxious weed list. "Recently naturalized" in Washington. Shiny geranium grows in well-shaded woodlands and forest openings as well as in full to partial sun. The counties in Washington match California. Didn't find a map in Oregon but the state matches parts of California's climate. First found in the US in 1971 in a cow pasture in Oregon.
Reference(s): 
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Listed on the Washington state noxious weed list. Shiny geranium has recently established in Washington and has quickly spread to many counties. It is difficult to control as the seeds can germinate when conditions are favorable in a variety of habitats. Originally listed as a Class A noxious weed in 2009, it was reclassified to a Class B noxious weed in 2015.
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Listed on the Washington state noxious weed list. Shiny geranium has recently established in Washington and has quickly spread to many counties. It is difficult to control as the seeds can germinate when conditions are favorable in a variety of habitats. Originally listed as a Class A noxious weed in 2009, it was reclassified to a Class B noxious weed in 2015. The counties where it occurs in Washington are similar to California.
Reference(s): 
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Geranium dissectum is invasive in California (Limited on Cal-IPC Inventory) due to displacing native herbaceous species, mostly in disturbed areas. Geranium robertianum is on noxious weed lists in Oregon and Washington due to impacts on forest understory species in the western parts of those states. Geranium robertianum appears to be spreading in Marin and Humboldt/Del Norte counties, and is similar to Geranium purpureum which is also spreading in the Bay Area. Geranium incanum is also naturalizing in Orange County. - Observations from State Parks
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Native to a large part of Europe, northern Africa, parts of the Middle East and western Asia, and India. It appears to cover a range of both temperate and tropical climates. The more northern European and British areas and tropical areas such as India don't match California but most of the other areas do so counting as a yes. GBIF map: http://www.gbif.org/species/2890560
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Shiny geranium grows in well-shaded woodlands and forest openings as well as in full to partial sun. Has quickly spread to many counties in Washington. It can successfully grow along with herb Robert (Geranium robertianum). The Washington noxious weed site doesn't give a lot of details on impacts and a literature search didn't find any articles from Washington. However, USDA risk assessment says it dominates habitat understories and excludes native herbaceous species (see link in Evaluation Notes).
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
No mention of this and it's a small herb that grows in shady areas. Defaulting to no.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Washington information says the plant is "not known" to be toxic.
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
A small herb that grows a couple of feet tall so does not seem capable of forming an impenetrable barrier.
Reference(s): 
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
No mention of this. Reproduction is by seed.
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Yes. Seeds are small and hairless. Able to produce seed via self-pollination (USDA risk assessment).
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Very Low
Answer / Justification: 
do not have information
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Does not seem to need infrequent conditions to germinate, based on description from Washington: It is difficult to control as the seeds can germinate when conditions are favorable in a variety of habitats. No information on percentage germination.
Reference(s): 
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
An annual or biennial so must produce seed in the first couple of years.
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Flowering time is May in California.
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Small, hairless seeds do not seem to have obvious adaptations for this. No mention of this type of dispersal in the USDA risk assessment.
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds are shot from the plant and travel 20 ft. No mention of dispersal by wind or water and the seed doesn't have obvious adaptations for this.
Reference(s): 
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
People disperse seeds accidentally. Spread from Oregon to Washington in contaminated nursery plants. May spread as a contaminant of agriculturally seeds. California locations in Humboldt and Del Norte are along Highway 101 and may be dispersed by equipment. Personal observation by Mona Robison.
Reference(s): 
Evaluation Notes

Washington noxious weed profile: http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=56

USDA GRIN: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=424927

USDA risk assessment: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/w...

Reviewed by Naomi Fraga, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, and Mona Robsion, independent botanist

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
16
Number of questions answered: 
19
Screener Confidence (%): 
85.3
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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