Galega officinalis_Louis-M. Landry
Photo by Louis M. Landry

Galega officinalis Risk Assessment

Common names: professorweed

Galega officinalis -- California

Primary tabs

Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
March 10, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
Not Recorded
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Two records in Calflora. Also in about 10 other US states and Ontario, Canada.
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Present in California, Utah, Colorado, Washington, which match California.
Reference(s): 
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
On US Federal noxious weed list. Invades 60 square miles in one county in Utah. On Washington noxious weed list but the information is unclear about how widespread it is or if it's more of an alert species for prevention.
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Yes, invasive in Utah, which matches California.
Reference(s): 
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Galega orientalis listed by Randall 2012 as invasive based on reports from Estonia and the Upper Volga Basin, Russia, but these are not similar to California.
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Native to the Mediterranean, which is similar to California. Mostly in Europe, in areas not similar to California. GBIF map = http://www.gbif.org/species/2975667
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Galega officinalis forms dense thickets and competes with and reduces yields of forage plants. Can grow up to 2m (6 ft) tall.
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Did not find any mention of this.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Goatsrue produces a toxic alkaloid, galegin, which lowers blood pressure and paralyzes the central nervous system (of livestock?). Toxic to cattle, horses, and sheep. Also reduces yield of forage plants. (However, also used to increase milk flow in cows.)
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Galega officinalis forms dense thickets and competes with and reduces yields of forage plants. Can grow up to 2m (6 ft) tall so it seems like these could be impenetrable.
Reference(s): 
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Does not sound like it. Reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Pods contain up to 9 mustard colored, oblong seeds. Each plant can produce 15,000 pods or more.
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Goatsrue seeds typically remain dormant until scarified and may remain viable for ten or more years. See the CDFA blog entry cited in Evaluation Notes. This is a new species added to the noxious weed list in 2015.
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Answer / Justification: 
Could not find information
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Flowers June and July.
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds can be spread in animal manure.
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds are spread primarily in irrigation water.
Reference(s): 
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds can be spread by contaminated harvest equipment, soil equipment, animal manure, or alfalfa seed.
Reference(s): 
Evaluation Notes

Reviewed by Barbara Castro, CA Dept of Water Resources

Direct links to datasheets:

CABI - http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/24756. Last modified 20 Jan 2015.

Washington - http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=54

CDFA - http://blogs.cdfa.ca.gov/Section3162/?p=706


 
Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
16
Number of questions answered: 
19
Screener Confidence (%): 
89.5
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

Review this Evaluation

674

Click on the button below to mark this evaluation as "Reviewed". Once you click the button, please wait a second, and the site will return to this Evaluation and your name will be on the "Reviewers List" in the right hand column (below the Evaluation Summary). For more information, please see the help page on How to Review an Evaluation?

Vertical Tabs