Araujia sericifera_C017-01
Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California

Araujia sericifera Risk Assessment

Common names: bladderflower

Araujia sericifera -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
March 21, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
1 Hour
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Madeira Islands, Lesotho, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, France, Portugal, Spain, Georgia, Arizona, California.
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Areas in the Madeira Islands, South Africa, Australia, France, Portugal, Spain, Arizona match California. Naturalized in 12 counties in California. A problem in citrus groves in California.
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
In California, it is on the state noxious weed list due to its impacts in citrus groves, where it grows over trees and competes with them for water, nutrients, and light. It is on the noxious weed list of New South Wales, Australia, as a "locally controlled weed."
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
In California, it is on the state noxious weed list due to its impacts in citrus groves, where it grows over trees and competes with them for water, nutrients, and light. Grows in orchards, landscaped areas, gardens, and disturbed sites. It has been reported from riparian areas on the Santa Barbara coast and Santa Cruz Island, CA. It is on the noxious weed list of New South Wales, Australia, as a "locally controlled weed."
Reference(s): 
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
This is the only species in the genus listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds.
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Native range is Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, which do not match California. However, much of the naturalized range does match California. GBIF map = http://www.gbif.org/species/3170442
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
The plants grow very fast and can cover a tree canopy of an orange grove in a couple of years. Individual branches can be killed by girdling vines. These impacts are from agricultural areas; I do not have information on similar impacts in natural areas.
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
No evidence for this impact so defaulting to no.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Foliage and to a lessor extent the fruits contain compounds that can cause nonfatal digest tract irritation and neurological problems if ingested in sufficient quantities. However, toxicity has not been reported in North America. Plant sap also contains an enzyme that can dissolve skin and create sores.
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Thick vines growing over trees seem to have the potential to create thickets.
Reference(s): 
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Under certain conditions, can reproduce vegetatively when severed pieces of underground stems or crowns can produce new roots and shoots.
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Under certain conditions, can reproduce vegetatively when severed pieces of underground stems or crowns can produce new roots and shoots.
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Produces pods with numerous seeds.
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Seed production is prolific (except in areas where temperatures drop below freezing in early fall) and seed production can be around 90%. A photo of a seed pod shows hundreds of seeds.
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds germinate in the spring and may produce a 20-30 ft vine the first year.
Reference(s): 
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Plants usually produce seed in the first year.
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Flowers August to October in California. This is not more than three months.
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Seed does not have obvious adaptation for animal spread and wind is the only dispersal mechanism mentioned in Weeds of California.
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Seeds are small and are dispersed by wind.
Reference(s): 
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Seed does not have obvious adaptation for this type of spread and wind is the only dispersal mechanism mentioned in Weeds of California.
Reference(s): 
Evaluation Notes

Jepson eFlora: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=13870

Noxious Weed profile, which is mostly the same as Weeds of California: https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/IPC/encycloweedia/weedinfo/araujia.htm

Reviewed by Barbara Castro, California Dept. of Water Resources, and Alison Forrestel, Golden Gate National Recreation Area

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
20
Number of questions answered: 
20
Screener Confidence (%): 
87.0
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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