Aegilops cylindrica_C171-02
Photo courtesy UC Davis Weeds of California

Aegilops cylindrica Risk Assessment

Common names: jointed goatgrass

Aegilops cylindrica -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
January 21, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
1 Hour
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
24 counties in CA (Calflora), Europe, N America.
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in 24 counties in California. Also naturalized in most US states, including those similar to California.
Reference(s): 
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Listed as a noxious weed in California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Arizona. Mostly a problem in winter wheat. In Oregon, listed as affecting cereal crops and occasionally invading grasslands. Randall 2012 lists numerous areas of naturalization or agricultural problems. A couple citations in Randall from lists by the Nature Conservancy and National Parks but no information beyond the name.
Reference(s): 
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Listed as a noxious weed in California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Arizona. Mostly a problem in winter wheat. In Oregon, listed as affecting cereal crops and occasionally invading grasslands.
Reference(s): 
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis) is an invasive plant in California and many other areas.
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Native to Mediterranean Europe and Western Asia. Found throughout the Western US.
Reference(s): 
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Hard to answer because it's mostly a weed in winter wheat and disturbed areas such as roadsides, although also in rangelands.
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Looked at several sources and none mention flammability in its impacts. Ditomaso et al. in California Agriculture article said that burning jointed goatgrass seeds prevented germination more so than in barbed goatgrass.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Very Low
Answer / Justification: 
Livestock - invades fields and pastures (?) OR Dept of Ag says it invades rangelands.
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Doesn't sound like it. Grows 15 to 30 in tall. (But Invasive.org says it can grow 1.2m)
Reference(s): 
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed.
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces by seed
Reference(s): 
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Under typical field conditons with adequate moisture, one plant produces about 130 seeds, but isolated plants can produce as many as 3000 seeds.
Reference(s): 
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Grows as a winter annual and seeds germinate in the following fall, but some seeds can also germinate in the spring. Answering yes because the description implies that it is able to germinate as soon as conditions are favorable and does not need scarification or a similar process.
Reference(s): 
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Yes. Annual grass.
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
"Long flowering period" but no specific time mentioned. Flowers May - June in California so answering no based on that information.
Reference(s): 
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Dispersed by livestock, especially sheep, as well as human activities
Reference(s): 
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Can be dispersed by water (joints float), and wind.
Reference(s): 
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Dispersed by vehicles, specifically by attaching to tires. Dispersed by farm equipment (Canada).
Reference(s): 
Evaluation Notes

Reviewed by Barbara Castro, CA Dept of Water Resources

USDA PLANTS: http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=AECY

Direct link to Canadian factsheet: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/invasive-plants/fact...

 

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
18
Number of questions answered: 
20
Screener Confidence (%): 
83.0
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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