Acacia-cyclops_Ron-Vanderhoff
Photo by Ron Vanderhoff

Acacia cyclops Risk Assessment

Common names: cyclops acacia

Acacia cyclops -- California

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Evaluation Summary
Summary: 
General Evaluation Information
Date of Evaluation: 
January 25, 2016
Evaluation Time (hrs): 
3 Hours
Evaluation Status: 
Completed
Plant Information
Plant Material: 
If the plant is a cultivar, and if the cultivar's behavior differs from its parent's (behavior), explain how: 
Regional Information
Region Name: 
Climate Matching Map
These maps were built using a toolkit created in collaboration between GreenInfo Network, PlantRight, Cal-IPC, and Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis.
Climate Matching Maps PDF: 
Invasive History and Climate Matching
1. Has the species (or cultivar or variety, if applicable; applies to subsequent "species" questions) become naturalized where it is not native?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
South Africa, Ethiopia, California, Portugal
Reference(s): 
2. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being naturalized in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Naturalized in 6 counties in California.
Reference(s): 
3. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the U.S. or world?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Invasive in South Africa, where it occurs in the Cape Coastal area, also in the mountain and lowland fynbos, and southern and eastern Karoo.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
4. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) noted as being invasive in the US or world in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
3
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Invasive in South Africa, where it occurs in the Cape Coastal area, also in the mountain and lowland fynbos, and southern and eastern Karoo. These areas match California based on Cal-IPC's climate map.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
5. Are other species of the same genus (or closely related genera) invasive in a similar climate?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Acacia dealbata and A. melanoxylon are invasive in California.
Reference(s): 
6. Is the species (or cultivar or variety) found predominately in a climate matching the region of concern?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
2
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Native to winter rainfall areas of W. Australia. Also grows in winter rainfall areas of South Africa. Naturalized in Portugal. These areas match California. Map from Australian herbarium shows it on the coast of South Australia and Victoria, which match California.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
Impact on Native Plants and Animals
7. Does this plant displace native plants and dominate (overtop or smother) the plant community in areas where it has established?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
forms dense, impenetrable stands that shade out native vegetation
Reference(s): 
8. Is the plant noted as promoting fire and/or changing fire regimes?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Seed germination enhanced after fire but rarely regrows after fire damage.
Reference(s): 
9. Is the plant a health risk to humans or animals/fish? Has the species been noted as impacting grazing systems?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
No mention of toxicity. It is planted as a food for goats and other livestock. No evidence available on its impact to grazing systems.
Reference(s): 
10. Does the plant produce impenetrable thickets, blocking or slowing movement of animals, livestock, or humans?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Forms dense, impenetrable stands that shade out native vegetation in the lower fynbos of South Africa, where intertwined crowns block native vegetation. Grows 1-2m in its first two years. Grows to 3m, in some areas as tall as 8m.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
Reproductive Strategies
11. Does this species (or cultivar or variety) reproduce and spread vegetatively?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
Rarely coppices but "will not coppice after a good burning or an effective chopping-down."
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
12. If naturally detached fragments from this plant are capable of producing new plants, is this a common method of reproduction for the plant?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
Doesn't seem likely given that it's a shrub/tree
Reference(s): 
13. Does the species (or cultivar or variety) commonly produce viable seed?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Reproduces from seed. Seeds are dark brown to black, compressed, surrounded by a fleshy fruit.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
14. Does this plant produce copious viable seeds each year (> 1000)?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Very Low
Answer / Justification: 
Produces "large quantities of seed" but no specific number so I am leaving blank
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
15. Is there significant germination (>25%) of seeds the next growing season, with no requirement of an infrequent environmental condition for seeds to germinate (i.e. fire) or long dormancy period?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
A study by Shanta, et al 2005 indicates that normally germination occurs just below 20% and that scarification or heat or some other factor is required in order to improve germination significantly.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
16. Does this plant produce viable seed within the first three years (for an herbaceous species) to five years (for a woody species) after germination?
Yes or No: 
Points: 
Confidence Level: 
Answer / Justification: 
Could not find information
Reference(s): 
17. Does this plant continuously produce seed for >3 months each year or does seed production occur more than once a year?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
In native Australia, flowers Sept. - March and seedpods mature in Jan. and Feb. In South Africa, flowers Oct-Feb and sporadically throughout the year. Jespon eFlora indicates it flowers in California from December to March, so answered Yes based on this information.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
Dispersal
18. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by mammals or birds or via domestic animals?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
Very High
Answer / Justification: 
Dispersed by birds and mammals (including small rodents, baboons, doves, starlings). Birds like to eat the seed stalks.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
19. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed long distance (>100 m) by wind or water?
Yes or No: 
No
Points: 
0
Confidence Level: 
Medium
Answer / Justification: 
No mention of this in references. Animals appear to be the main form of dispersal.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
20. Are the plant’s propagules frequently dispersed via contaminated seed (agriculture or wildflower packets), equipment, vehicles, boats or clothing/shoes?
Yes or No: 
Yes
Points: 
1
Confidence Level: 
High
Answer / Justification: 
In South Africa, dispersed by human activities for long distances. No specific information on exactly what spreads it.
Reference(s): 
De Beer, H.. (1986).  Rooikrans. Farming in South Africa. , 3.
Evaluation Notes

Direct link to CABI datasheet:http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/2197. Version "last modified October 21, 2015."

Jepson eFlora link: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=11632

Reviewed by Barb Castro and Ron Vanderhoff.

Total PRE Score

  • < 13 : accept (low risk of invasiveness)
  • 13 - 15 : evaluate further
  • > 15 : reject (high risk of invasiveness)

PRE Score: 
17
Number of questions answered: 
18
Screener Confidence (%): 
83.3
PRE Content Access and Privacy
Evaluation visibility: 
Public - accessible to all site users

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