Ilex aquifolium

Ilex aquifolium_English Holly_stem with fruit M_JM DiTomaso
Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso

Common names: English holly

Ilex aquifolium (English holly) is an evergreen shrub or small tree (family Aquifoliaceae) found in the North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay region and central coast of California. English Holly is commonly sold as an ornamental plant used for landscaping and Christmas decorations. The plant has escaped cultivation and invaded moist forested areas throughout the west coast. English holly is slow-growing and may be controlled by removing plants before they start producing seed, 5-12 years after germination.

Cal-IPC Rating: Limited

Cal-IPC Assessment

Plant Assessment Form - Information gathered by Cal-IPC on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in California. Does not include management information.

Weed RIC Management Notes

  • Management Notes - Information on management techniques and effectiveness from the University of California Cooperative Extension’s Weed Research & Information Center.

Cal-IPC Newsletter Articles

Cal-IPC Symposium Presentations

  • Connick, S. and M. Gerel (2004). Partnering to prevent invasions of plants of horticultural origin. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.
  • Pickart, A. (2003). A decade of dune restoration at the Lanphere Dunes. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.

Other Ilex aquifolium Information

  • CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
  • Calflora - See the distribution of this species on Calflora's map of California.
  • CalWeedMapper - Distribution information with ability to determine regional priorities.
  • Jepson Online Interchange for California Flora - Information on taxonomy, biology, and distribution from UC Berkeley's Jepson Herbarium.
  • USDA PLANTS Database - Federal database with information on identification and distribution, and links to websites in individual states.