Synonyms: A. glandulosa Desf.
Common names: tree-of-heaven; Chinese sumac; paradise-tree; copal-tree
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven) is a tree (family Simaroubaceae) that is widely but discontinuously distributed in California. It was introduced as a landscape ornamental but escapes gardens and spreads by seeds and creeping roots that produce many suckers. It is most abundant along the coast and in the Sierra foothills, primarily in wastelands and disturbed, semi-natural habitats.Rating: Moderate
- Plant Assessment Form - Information gathered by Cal-IPC on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in California. Does not include management information.
- CalWeedMapper - Statewide maps, climate models, and reports.
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- Cal-IPC Symposium Proceedings - Presentations and papers from our annual Symposium.
- Don't Plant a Pest! - Select your region to find non-invasive alternatives to ornamental species. Also see our statewide brochure on trees.
- Species account from Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Includes biology and management information.
- Weed Worker's Handbook (pdf) - Includes reproduction factors and treatment options.
- USDA PLANTS database -
Federal database with information on identification and distribution, and links to websites in individual states.
- Jepson Online Interchange for California Flora - Information on taxonomy, biology, and distribution from the UC Berkeley Jepson Herbarium.
- CalFlora - Distribution information by county based on submitted observations and herbarium specimens.
- The Nature Conservancy Management Summary - Information compiled by TNC land managers. Photos included for some species.
- CalPhotos - Images of plants taken mostly in California.
- Natural Resource Projects Inventory - State database with information on resource management projects throughout California. Query by the species of interest.
- Dedon, M. F., M. E. Fry, et al. (2010). Pacific Gas and Electric Company's use of Safe Harbor agreements to enhance habitat for endangered species in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cal-IPC 2010 Symposium. Ventura, CA, California Invasive Plant Council.
- Dempsey, J. and W. Elliott (2005). Invasive plant control at California State Parks in the northern Sacramento Valley. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
- Heath, M., K. Moore, et al. (2005). Trees and shrubs discussion group. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2005. Chico, CA.
- Hunter, J. C., J. C. Sterling, et al. (2003). The abundance and distribution of non-native woody species in Sacramento Valley riparian zones. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2003. Kings Beach, CA.
- DiTomaso, J. and G. Kyser (2002). Trial of several herbicides and application techniques for control of Ailanthus altissima, Upper Putah Creek, Yolo County. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2002. Sacramento, CA.
- Kelly, M. (2001). Results of basal bark application of Garlon4 on Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven). California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium 2001. San Diego, CA.
- Butler, E. and S. Britting (1998). Mapping and control of weeds in the American River Parkway. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium '98. Ontario, CA.
- Jackson, N. E. (1996). Control of exotic weeds with Roundup herbicide: A survey of projects around the world. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium. San Diego, CA.
- Tellman, B. (1996). Stowaways and invited guests:How some exotic plants reached the American southwest. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium. San Diego, CA.
Cal-IPC News Articles
- Neill, B. and T. A. Angeles (2005). The basal bark method of applying triclopyr herbicide. Cal-IPC News. 13: 8-9.
- Kitz, J. (2000). Drilling Ailanthus. CalEPPC News. 8: 13.
- DiTomaso, J. (1998). Results of the CalEPPC questionnaire at Symposium '98 in Ontario. CalEPPC News. 6: 4.
- Goode, S. (1998). Legendary stewardship award. CalEPPC News. 6: 10.
- Kitz, J. (1997). A working paper on Ailanthus. CalEPPC News. 5: 9.
- Hunter, J. C. (1995). Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle: Its biology and recent history. CalEPPC News. 3: 4-5.
- (1993). California Exotic Pest Plant Council draft list exotic plants of greatest concern October 1993. CalEPPC News. 1: 6.