Plant Assessment Form

Spartium junceum

Common Names: Spanish broom

Evaluated on: 3/9/04

List committee review date: 19/03/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Carla Bossard
St. Mary's College of California
401 Del Oro Av. Davis, CA 95616
925 631-4032 or 530 758-1602
cbossard@stmarys-ca.edu

List commitee members

Cynthia Roye
Carla Bossard
Doug Johnson
Joe DiTomaso
Jake Sigg
Alison Stanton
Matt Brooks
Peter Warner.

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? High
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score ABBD Total Score
A
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
15 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Observational
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal B. Occasional Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

A. changes soil chemistry and fire intensity of ecosystems. A. A nitrogen fixer that changes soil chemistry and adds large amounts of flammable fuel load that can change fire intensity of ecosystems


Sources of information:

Nilsen, E.T. and S Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.
Rejmanek, M and J. Randall. 1994. Invasive alien plants in California: 1993 summary and comparison with other areas in North America. Madrono.41:161-177.
State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
McClintock, E..1979. The weedy brooms-where did they come from? Freemontia.6:15-17
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E. T. and D. Karpa. 1994. Seasaonal acclimation of stem photosysnthesis in two, invasive, legumes in coastal California. American J. of Botany.80:1126-1136


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

B. May reduce biomass and diversity of native species. Can change soil nitrogen dynamics favoring some species over others, blocks light and uses up water resulting in many species becoming locally extinct and forming monospecific stands.,


Sources of information:

Nilsen, E.T. and S Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.
Rejmanek, M and J. Randall. 1994. Invasive alien plants in California: 1993 summary and comparison with other areas in North America. Madrono.41:161-177.
State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E. T. and D. Karpa. 1994. Seasaonal acclimation of stem photosysnthesis in two, invasive, legumes in coastal California. American J. of Botany.80:1126-1136


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

reduces forage contains alkaloids, forms stands unaccessable and unpalletable to wildlife


Sources of information:

State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

D. no known hybridization an outcrosser with no native congeners in California


Sources of information:

State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E.T. and S Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

B. Disturbance promotes dominance and spread. Favors diturbed habitats such as old fields, road banks, land slides, river islands and post- burn sites. It may persist indefiniatelyand disrupt normal succession. Fire promotes this species.


Sources of information:

Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E.T. and S Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Observational
Describe rate of spread:

A. Episodic rapid invader. When conditions are suitable it can spread rapidly.


Sources of information:

Observation. Stands at Leggett, near Cosumnes River, coastal Southern California


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Observational
Describe trend:

increasing B. Increasing rapidly in some areas, especially in the South of California


Sources of information:

C. Bossard and J. DiTomaso , observations


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

A. high (7 points); monoecious, out-crossed, 7000-10000 seeds per plant in a season; effective stem sprouter; seeds viable at least 5 years in soil, probably much longer. see above


Sources of information:

Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E.T. and S Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

B. moderate Dispersed by rainwash and rivers since seeds float; moved by roadside equipment


Sources of information:

Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E.T. and S Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

C. Low dispersed ballistically and somewhat by ants, and water.


Sources of information:

State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.
Nilsen, E.T. and S. Semones. 1997. Comparison of variance in quantitative growth and physiological traits between genets and ramets derived from an invasive weed, Spartium junceum (Fabaceae). 168:827-834.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

C. low occurs in similar habitats in Oregon and Mexico


Sources of information:

State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

A. Widespread introduced in 1848 as an ornamental and used as roadside revegetation species 1930-1979


Sources of information:

State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceumL.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

C. in some local areas to 90% but overall does not cover as much acreage as Scotch or French broom in California


Sources of information:

State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/spanishbroom.html
Nilsen, E.T. 2000. Spartium junceum in Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky, eds. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. U. C. Press, Berkeley, CA. P. 306-309.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 7
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubD, < 5%
coastal scrubC, 5% - 20%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparralD, < 5%
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forestD, < 5%
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D, < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodlandD, < 5%
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forestD, < 5%
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert