Plant Assessment Form

Sesbania punicea

Synonyms: Sesbania punicea, Sesbania tripetii, Daubentonia punicea

Common Names: scarlet wisteria; red sesbania; rattlebox; Chinese wisteria

Evaluated on: 3/25/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
John Randall
Carri Pirosko
Dan Gluesenkamp
Gina Skurka
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? High
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes A Other Published Material
Impact?
Four-part score AABD Total Score
A
1.2 ?Impact on plant community A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
14 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Anecdotal
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Reviewed Scientific Publication
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
C. Limited Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? A Other Published Material
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Reduces water flow and flood conveyance in rivers (1). Colonization of channel banks, sand and gravel bars, and instream islands by sesbania may increase hydraulic roughness because dense thickets tend to have approximately twice the roughness of open banks. This increase in roughness could increase the stage of flood events (2). Nitrogen fixer (3).


Sources of information:

1. Platenkamp, G. A. J., and J. C. Hunter. 2003. Ecological and hydraulic effects of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) invasion of riparian areas in California. Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council 2003 Symposium. p. 114-115
2. Hunter, J. C., and G. A. J. Platenkamp. 2003. The hunt for red sesbania: biology, spread, and prospects for control. CalEPPC News, California Invasive Plant Council. 11(2):4-6. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/documents/newsletter310.htm
3. Cuda J.P. et. al. 1996. Prospects for Biological Control of Weedy Sesbanias (Fabaceae) in the Southeastern United States of America. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, January 1996, South Africa (ed.) Moran V.C., Hoffmann J.H.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Creates dense thickets, usually along riverbanks, where other plants are excluded from the understory (1). Forms dense thickets with 100% cover over areas of up to several thousand square meters. Has some shade tolerance and seedlings can regenerate in its own shade, giving it the potential to maintain dominance at a site through recurrent recruitment (2).


Sources of information:

1. Hoffman, J.C., Moran V.C. 1988. The Invasive Weed Sesbania punicea in South Africa and Prospects for its Biological Control. South African Journal of Science 34: 740-741.
2. Hunter, J. C., and G. A. J. Platenkamp. 2003. The hunt for red sesbania: biology, spread, and prospects for control. CalEPPC News, California Invasive Plant Council. 11(2):4-6. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/documents/newsletter310.htm


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

All parts of the plant are poisonous to birds, reptiles, and mammals (1). Displaces plants used by native wildlife. Blocks access to the river (2). However, causes moderate impacts with no serious declines to birds or reptile populations in California (pers. obs. of review committee).


Sources of information:

1. Graaff J. L., van Staden J. 1984. The germination characteristics of two Sesbania species. S. African J. of Bot. 3: 59-62.
2. Sacramento Weed Warriors. no date. Invasive weed fact sheet. Red Sesbania (Sesbania punicea). http://www.sacvalleycnps.org/projects/weedFiles/swwhome/weedhome.html


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

One native species, S. exaltata, is in the Sonoran Desert. Invasion so far is not in this area.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Anecdotal
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits waterways, which receive natural disturbance from water flow (1). Stratification improves germination (2). Seeds shaken in a jar with pebbles had increased rates of germination compared to seeds that were soaked or received no disturbance (2).


Sources of information:

1. Platenkamp, G. A. J., and J. C. Hunter. 2003. Ecological and hydraulic effects of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) invasion of riparian areas in California. Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council 2003 Symposium. p. 114-115
2. Hunter, J. C., and G. A. J. Platenkamp. 2003. The hunt for red sesbania: biology, spread, and prospects for control. CalEPPC News, California Invasive Plant Council. 11(2):4-6. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/documents/newsletter310.htm


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Anecdotal
Describe rate of spread:

Once established it has been reported to spread in many locations.


Sources of information:

Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Other Published Material
Describe trend:

A recent invader that has spread in the Central Valley since 1999.


Sources of information:

1. Platenkamp, G. A. J., and J. C. Hunter. 2003. Ecological and hydraulic effects of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) invasion of riparian areas in California. Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council 2003 Symposium. p. 114-115


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Deciduous shrub or small tree. Flowers June-September in California. Plants usually become reproductive at 2-3 years of age and can survive for 15 years (1). Reproductive individuals produce 100-1000 seed pods/year, with 5-10 seeds/pod. Reproductive output can exceed 500 seeds/square m (2) Need information on seed production to score.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M., and E. H. Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3421.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Has escaped from cultivation in South Africa, and the southeastern U.S. (1). Used as an ornamental in California, but not as commonly sold as other invasive ornamental. (2).


Sources of information:

1. Hoffman, J.C., Moran V.C. 1988. The Invasive Weed Sesbania punicea in South Africa and Prospects for its Biological Control. South African Journal of Science 34: 740-741.
2. The Nature Conservancy. no date. Weed Alert! Sesbania punicea. The Nature Conservancy Wildland Invasive Species Program. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/alert/alrtsesb.html. Accessed. 1/28/05


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds can be spread along waterways. Sesbania grows along riparian areas. Seeds have impermeable seed coats that require scarification. This impermeability allows for survival when transmitted along waterways (1).


Sources of information:

1. Evans, D.O., and P. P. Rotar. date unknown. Sesbania in Agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify other regions:

Native to South America. Invasive in South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, and the southeastern United States (1, 2) Seems to inhabit similar habitats in California and other areas. Always mentioned as riparian.


Sources of information:

1. Hoffman, J.C., Moran V.C. 1988. The Invasive Weed Sesbania punicea in South Africa and Prospects for its Biological Control. South African Journal of Science 34: 740-741.
2. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? C Other Published Material

First collected in California on the American River Parkway in Sacramento in 1999. Source of introduction unknown (1). Also reported from other riparian areas, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, Lower American River, San Joaquin River, and other Central Valley locations. Mostly found in areas close to the low-flow channel (2). Besides riparian areas, inhabits other moist places, marshes, and the margins of ponds, ditches, and canals (3).
Was introduced to California as an ornamental prior to 1930 but was not documented in riparian vegetation until 1987. Has invaded willow scrub, stream banks, and sand and gravel bars (4).


Sources of information:

1. Robinson R. Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. in California. 1999. TNC Wildland Weeds Management and Research. Source unknown.
2. Platenkamp, G. A. J., and J. C. Hunter. 2003. Ecological and hydraulic effects of red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) invasion of riparian areas in California. Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council 2003 Symposium. p. 114-115
3. DiTomaso, J.M., and E. H. Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3421.
4. Hunter, J. C., and G. A. J. Platenkamp. 2003. The hunt for red sesbania: biology, spread, and prospects for control. CalEPPC News, California Invasive Plant Council. 11(2):4-6. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/documents/newsletter310.htm


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

New invader. Hasn't spread far yet.


Sources of information:

CDFA


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 5
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swampD, < 5%
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Sonoran Desert