Plant Assessment Form

Senecio glomeratus

Synonyms: Erechtites glomerata, Erectities arguta, Senecio glomeratus, Senecio arguta, Erectites prenanthoides, Senecio minimus, Senecio prenanthoides

Common Names: cutleaf burnweed, cutleaf fireweed, New Zealand fireweed, Australian burnweed, bushman's burnweed, cut-leaved coast fireweed, Australian fireweed, little fireweed, coastal burnweed, Australian burnweed, toothed coast fireweed

Evaluated on: 30-Jul-04

List committee review date: 27/08/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Brianna Richardson, Cal-IPC Project Manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442-A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510.843.3902, 650.210.9453
brichardson@cal-ipc.org

List commitee members

Cynthia Roye
John Randall
Joe DiTomaso
Jake Sigg
Alison Stanton
Peter Warner

General Comments

Removed second scientific name, Erechtites glomerata, and added it to the synonym line, 3/24/17. Ramona Robison

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UCDD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels D. Negligible Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
12 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal D. Does not occur Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score A
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

No impacts found in the literature.


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can dominate overall plant cover in post-clearcut sites, but usually replaced by trees and shrubs within 5-10 years. Quickly dominate graslands and fields. Among the most serious pests in the Channel Islands. Rapidly spread in an establised native grassland on San Miguel Island, displacing native grasses and forbs. On the Channel Islands, impacts are more severe, with Erechtites replacing established native grasses and forms. In north coast forests, the impacts are less severe: the plant can dominate in post-disturbance sites (fire, logging) but is replaced by native shrubs and trees over time. Early successional stages, however are impacted.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) Halvorson, W.L.; R.E. Koske. 1987. Mycorrhizae associated with an invasion of Erectites glomerata (Asteracaea) on San Miguel Island, California. Madrono. V.34, no.3: 260-268.
Observational, Peter Warner, 2004.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Forms facultative mycorrhizal relationships with 9 vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on San Miguel Island. No impacts to native animals or insects found in the literature.


Sources of information:

1) Halvorson, W.L.; R.E. Koske. 1987. Mycorrhizae associated with an invasion of Erectites glomerata (Asteracaea) on San Miguel Island, California. Madrono. V.34, no.3: 260-268


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

No native relatives. No potential for hybridization with native plants.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe role of disturbance:

Well suited to exploit fertile, freshly disturbed ground, but are weak competitors. Disturbance is unnecessary to establishment of E. glomerata in grasslands on the Channel Islands. Established and spread through a stable native grassland on San Miguel Island with no disturbance. Can establish without disturbance, but more frequently relies on anthropogenic (logging) or natural (fire) disturbance.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) Halvorson, W.L.; R.E. Koske. 1987. Mycorrhizae associated with an invasion of Erectites glomerata (Asteracaea) on San Miguel Island, California. Madrono. V.34, no.3: 260-268.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe rate of spread:

Quickly dominates grasslands and fields. Facultative mycorrhizal relationships may explain rapid rate of spread. In less than 1 year after establishment, E. glomerata spread to 173 acres w/ max density of 3237 plants/acre. One year after estab. at Pt. Reyes, 1.2 million E.minima plants had grown. Spread on San Miguel Island has been rapid. Colonizes quickly after disturbance, more than doubling in less than 10 years, however does not persist at high density.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) Halvorson, W.L.; R.E. Koske. 1987. Mycorrhizae associated with an invasion of Erectites glomerata (Asteracaea) on San Miguel Island, California. Madrono. V.34, no.3: 260-268.
Observational, Alison Stanton, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Population decreasing throughout the state.


Sources of information:

Observational, Alison Stanton, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Combined average seed density for the two species is around 522 per square meter in old-growht redwoods. Seeds spread by wind. Annual - produces seed every year. 89% of seeds may remain viable for at least 8 years. Plants flower April-October.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) DiTomaso, J.; E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Currently unpublished. p. 158-159.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

No information in literature. Wind is the primary dispersal mechanism. May be spread by trail users, but no indication of that is made in the literature.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) DiTomaso, J.; E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Currently unpublished. p. 158-159.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds dispersed by wind. Capillary pappus and small, light seeds make long-distance dispersal likely. Seeds are believed to have blown from Santa Barbara Island to San Miguel Island.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) DiTomaso, J.; E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Currently unpublished. p. 158-159
3) Wilken, D.; L. Hannah. Erechtites glomerata (Poir.) DC. Australian fireweed. 1998. www.usgs.nau.edu/SWEPIC/factsheets/MAVU_APRS.pd
4) Halvorson, W.L.; R.E. Koske. 1987. Mycorrhizae associated with an invasion of Erectites glomerata (Asteracaea) on San Miguel Island, California. Madrono. V.34, no.3: 260-268.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Present in Washington and Oregon. Seems to invade the same coastal forests in these states that it already invades in California.


Sources of information:

1) USDA Plants Database. http://plants.usda.gov
2) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
3) Wilken, D.; L. Hannah. Erechtites glomerata (Poir.) DC. Australian fireweed. 1998. www.usgs.nau.edu/SWEPIC/factsheets/MAVU_APRS.pd


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

E. minima naturalized in Humboldt County in 1918. E. glomerata found in north coast redwoods before 1941. E minima found in redwood groves, E glomerata found in coastal prarie and scrub. Invades 5 major ecological types in California.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of Califonria's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
2) Halvorson, W.L.; R.E. Koske. 1987. Mycorrhizae associated with an invasion of Erectites glomerata (Asteracaea) on San Miguel Island, California. Madrono. V.34, no.3: 260-268.
Observational, Alison Stanton, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? B Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

"Ubiquitous" in north coast redwood forests. Occurs from central Oregon to Santa Barbara and the Channel Islands. Prefers grasslands, woodlands, and coastal scrub habitat. Found in disturbed areas, roadsides, stream banks, pastures, and post-burn. Uncommon in north coast communities until other vegetation is removed. In Bossard et. al. the plant is "ubiquitous" in north coast redwood forests--I conservatively gave it a B rating to represent that characterization. Invades 21-50% of north coast coniferous forests in CA.


Sources of information:

1) Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky (eds). 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. UC Press: Berkeley.
Observational, Alison Stanton, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 8
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
DunescoastalD, < 5%
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubC, 5% - 20%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieC, 5% - 20%
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D, < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodlandD, < 5%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestB, 20% - 50%
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): B

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions