Plant Assessment Form

Schinus molle

Common Names: Peruvian pepper tree; California pepper tree

Evaluated on: 5/19/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph M. DiTomaso
University of California, Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Jake Sigg
Peter Warner
Bob Case
John Knapp
Elizabeth Brusati

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UCUD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels U. Unknown
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
11 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Reviewed Scientific Publication
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Is more widespread than Brazilian peppertree in California. In Riverside County, slopes are covered by Schinus molle. However, in Contra Costa county it is present but not very invasive. Appears to vary greatly by location.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488
John Knapp, Catalina Island Conservancy, Avalon, CA. pers. comm
Jake Sigg and Bob Case, California Native Plant Society, pers. comm.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? U
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Peruvian peppertree is susceptible to black scale (Saissetia oleae), a detrimental pest of citrus. Plants can cause dermatitis in sensitive individuals. No know impact on native organisms.


Sources of information:

Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

none No native Schinus spp.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Habitat it is listed as invading (desert washes, abandoned fields, disturbed chaparral) all receive either natural or human-caused disturbance.


Sources of information:

1. Nilsen, E. T., and W. H. Muller 1980. A comparison of the relative naturalization ability ot two Schinus species in southern California. I. seed germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107:51-56
2. Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Reported as only mildly invasive, so probably is not spreading much.


Sources of information:

Kelly, Mike, California Native Plant Society, San Diego, pers. comm. E-mail 4/29/05


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Reported as only mildly invasive, so probably is not spreading much.


Sources of information:

Kelly, Mike, California Native Plant Society, San Diego, pers. comm. E-mail 4/29/05


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Sometimes root-sprouting (1,3). Fruits in late fall; seeds germinate in winter (2).


Sources of information:

1. Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA
2. Nilsen, E. T., and W. H. Muller. 1980. A comparison of the relative naturalization ability ot two Schinus species (Anacardiaceae) in southern California. II. seedling establishment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107:232-237
3. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Used to be widely planted as an ornamental, but uncommon now (1).


Sources of information:

1. Brenzel, K. N. 2001. Sunset Western Garden Book. Sunset Publishing Company, Menlo Park, CA.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Birds feed on the seeds and may disperse them.


Sources of information:

1. Nilsen, E. T., and W. H. Muller 1980. A comparison of the relative naturalization ability of two Schinus species in southern California. I. seed germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107:51-56


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to South America. Also invades Texas, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico (1). A riparian tree in its native habitat (2).


Sources of information:

1. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Nilsen, E. T., and W. H. Muller 1980. A comparison of the relative naturalization ability of two Schinus species in southern California. I. seed germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107:51-56


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Reviewed Scientific Publication

Washes, slopes, abandoned fields. Jepson regions: Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapis, Great Valley, Central West, Southwest (1). Has naturalized in disturbed chaparral of the Santa Ynez mountains. Was imported by the Spanish as an ornamental (2). Also naturalized in grassland, coastal sage scrub, and old fields in southern California (3).


Sources of information:

1. Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA
2. Nilsen, E. T., and W. H. Muller 1980. A comparison of the relative naturalization ability of two Schinus species in southern California. I. seed germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107:51-56
3. Nilsen, E. T., and W. H. Muller. 1980. A comparison of the relative naturalization ability ot two Schinus species (Anacardiaceae) in southern California. II. seedling establishment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 107:232-237


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Only mildly invasive.


Sources of information:

Kelly, Mike, California Native Plant Society, San Diego, pers. comm. E-mail 4/29/05


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less No
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Unknown
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 2
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: C?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparralD, < 5%
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D, < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert