Plant Assessment Form

Salsola soda

Common Names: glasswort; oppositeleaf Russian thistle

Evaluated on: 1/3/07

List committee review date: 14/02/2007

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph M. DiTomaso
University of CAlifornia, Davis
Dept Plant Sci, Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Peter Warner
Joanna Clines

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U
Impact?
Four-part score UBBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
12 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Has the potential ot alter native wetland ecosystems in San Francisco Bay, but there is little information on its abiotic impact.


Sources of information:

1. Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can form monospecific stands in estuaries but may be outcompeted by native pickleweed. A pioneer species. (1)
One of the co-dominant forbs in high marsh zones bordering small tidal creeks at Newark Slough, SF Bay. Tends to concentrate in drift lines, which may be a problem for rare native plants such as Suaeda californica that depend completely on this zone (2).
Displaces native species in vernal pools?
Replacing the native pickleweed and therefore transforming the landscape (3)


Sources of information:

1. Susan Schwartz, Friends of Five Creeks, Alameda Co., personal comm.
2. Peter Baye, e-mail 1/4/07
John Gerlach, observational
3. Tomasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: Summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News, Summer, pg 4,9


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Establishes in previously unvegetated areas, subsequently affecting the short-legged shorebirds by decreasing their visibility from predators. Occurs well within the dispersal range of the endangered plant soft bird's-beak (Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis).


Sources of information:

Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org
Baye, P. 1998. More on Salsola soda. CalEPPC News, Fall 1998. p. 7. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

None No native Salsola spp. in Calfornia.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits mostly habitats with natural or human disturbance in the San Francisco Bay Area (1, 2). Although it has invaded many disturbed areas and become dominant or co-dominant, including disturbed soils, spilled or discharged dredge slurries, and areas where there is artificially reduced tidal action, it is of particular concern because it is alo widespread in undisturbed sal marsh areas of the south Bay.
Vernal pools


Sources of information:

1. Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org
2. Baye, P. 1998. More on Salsola soda. CalEPPC News, Fall 1998. p. 7. Available: www.cal-ipc.org
3. get information from John Gerlach


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Increasing rapidly along creek mouths and brackish open shores in Eastern San Francisco Bay (1).
Overall size and penetration into marshes has increased in the past 10 years around San Francisco Bay. Used to be a novelty in the North Bay but is now common. The bay is fairly saturated with it west of Suisun. (2)
Now spreading into vernal pools areas and is expecte to spread inland and along coastal saline habitats in the southern regions of the state.


Sources of information:

1. Susan Schwartz, Friends of Five Creeks, Alameda Co., personal comm., 2005.
2. Peter Baye, e-mail, 1/4/07


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Other Published Material
Describe trend:

increasing in vernal pools and other salt marsh areas.


Sources of information:

Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Summer annual. Seeds probably short lived like other members of the genus.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. UC ANR Publ #3488.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Found along roads and bike paths and can move on some occasions by vehicles.


Sources of information:

Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Buoyant fruits float on tidal currents.


Sources of information:

Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to South Africa. First introduced to San Francisco Bay in 1968. Listed as a noxious weed in Arkansas. Appears to inhabit the same areas in California as elsewhere, but little information is available.


Sources of information:

Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Mudflats and saltmarshes in the San Francisco Bay region. Inhabits high tide drift line, marsh plains, and levees. Locally abundant on tidal creek edges. (1,2, 3, 4). Generally found in saline habitats, but also been observed in vernal pool areas (5). Also in the Suisun Bay (6). It is also invading the tidal creek bank edges in undisturbed, mixed stands of Distichlis spicata and Salicornia virginica.


Sources of information:

1. Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org
2. Baye, P. 1998. More on Salsola soda. CalEPPC News, Fall 1998. p. 7. Available: www.cal-ipc.org
3. Thomas, J. H. 1975. Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae) in Central California. Madrono. 23(2): 95
4. Peter Baye, e-mail, 1/4/07
5. get information from John Gerlach
6. Tamasi, J. 1998. The distribution of the non-native plant Salsola soda in San Francisco Bay: summary of a thesis. CalEPPC News Summer 1998, p. 4. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

Most estensive populations occur in northern San Pablo Bay.


Sources of information:

Baye, P. 1998. More on Salsola soda. CalEPPC News, Fall 1998. p. 7. Available: www.cal-ipc.org


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Unknown
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 2
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: C?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systemsD, < 5%
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuariesD, < 5%
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal poolD, < 5%
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swampD, < 5%
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest