Plant Assessment Form

Polypogon monspeliensis

Synonyms: Agrostis alopecuroides Lam., Alopecurus aristatus var. monspeliensis (L.) Huds., Alopecurus monspeliensis L., Phleum crinitum Schreb., Phleum monspeliense Koel., Polypogon crinitus (Schreb.) Nutt., Polypogon flavescens J. Presl, Santia monspeliensis (L.) Parl.

Common Names: rabbitsfoot grass; annual beardgrass; rabbitfootgrass; tawny beardgrass

Evaluated on: 3/23/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
John Randall
Carri Pirosko
Dan Gluesenkamp
Gina Skurka
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score DCDD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels D. Negligible
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment C. Minor Observational
Invasiveness?
Total Points
9 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal B. Occasional Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

None


Sources of information:

Dan Gluesenkamp, Audubon Canyon Ranch, and John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, pers. obs.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

May be allelopathic. In India, P. monspeliensis did not interfere chemically with the crops cultivated during the same season, but interfered with the following season's crop through its accumulated straw (1). Often found in moist areas. Probably does not have a significant impact on other vegetation.


Sources of information:

Inderjit and K. M. M. Dakshini. 1995. Allelopathic potential of an annual weed, Polypogon monspeliensis, in crops in India. Plant & Soil 173(2): 251-257.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? D
Identify type of impact or alteration:

In Australia, polypogon sometimes carries bacteria that cause livestock poisoning, but no effect in wildland areas of California.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A.Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 3421. Oakland, CA
Dan Gluesenkamp, Audubon Canyon Ranch, and John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, pers. obs.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

None No native Polypogon in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Generally required disturbance.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Rarely forms large and dense patches.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Appears to be fairly static in the state.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A.Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 3421. Oakland, CA


Sources of information:

Seeds can be spread by agricultural activities or as a seed impurity in hay, but this is probably very uncommon.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds can be spread by agricultural activities or as a seed impurity in hay, but this is probably very uncommon.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A.Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 3421. Oakland, CA


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds can disperse with water or by clinging to the fur, feet, and feathers of animals. Dispersal by water seems likely given that this species grows near streams.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A.Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 3421. Oakland, CA


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Present in most contiguous states except Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, West Virginia (1). Present in Australia, India, many other places. Scoring as C because already widespread in California.


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Inhabits moist to wet places, stream and pond margins, seasonally wet sites, ditches, and moist sites in agricultural areas (1). Common throughout California to 2100m (2). Reported from coastal dunes in northern California (3).


Sources of information:

1. DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A.Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication 3421. Oakland, CA
2. DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.
3. Meyers-Rice B., Randall J. 1999. Weed Report: Polypogon monspeliensis, Annual Rabbitsfoot Grass, Beardgrass. The Nature Conservancy Wildland Weeds Management and Research 1998-99 Weed Survey.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Most common in meadows or alongside streams and canals.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
DunescoastalD, < 5%
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal poolD, < 5%
meadow and seepD, < 5%
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Great Basin Province
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert