Plant Assessment Form

Nicotiana glauca

Common Names: tree tobacco

Evaluated on: 3/18/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Scott Oneto / Natural Resources Program Representative
University of California Cooperative Extension
12200B Airport Road, Jackson, CA 95642
209-223-6837
sroneto@ucdavis.edu
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Alison Stanton
Joanna Clines
Cynthia Roye
Doug Johnson

General Comments

A larger problem south of the Tehachapis.

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UCBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
13 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal B. Occasional Observational
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Observational
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Displaces native plants. However, impacts are not strong. Prolific seed producer with seed set approaching 100% in manually self-pollinated flowers.


Sources of information:

Wilken D., Hannah L. 1998; Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae) Tree Tobacco. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Publication
Pers.obs. Joe DiTomaso, Jake Sigg, Peter Warner, Carla Bossard 9/15/05


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Affecting the habitat of the threatened cactus wren in California and the Blackburn sphinx moth in Hawaii. In California, tree tobacco invades coastal prickly pear cactus stands. Hummingbirds pollinate this tree instead of the native shrubs, which the threatened cactus wren is dependent on. In Hawaii, the endangered sphinx moth has been found to feed and reproduce on the introduced species. Tree tobacco also contains a toxic alkaloid called anabasine which is posionous to livestock and other foraging animals.


Sources of information:

Meyers-Rice, B., Randall J. Weed Report: Nicotiana glauca, Tree Tobacco. The Nature Conservancy Wildlands Weeds Management and Research 1998-99 Weed Survey.
Giffen, J. Pu'u'wa'awa'a Biological Assessment. August 2003
Knight, A.P., Walter R.G. A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America. Teton New Media: Jackson, Wyoming. Pgs. 247-249. 2001


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

There are four native species of Nicotiana in California, but no information on hybridization. Very unlikely since the other species are herbaceous and this is woody. No information


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Found primarily in disturbed areas, of both human and natural origin. Is capable of sprouting along runners. First planted as a landscape ornamental, Tree Tobacco has escaped and can now be found widespread along roadsides, disturbed sites, waste areas, riparian areas, and recently burned sites.


Sources of information:

Wilken D., Hannah L. 1998; Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae) Tree Tobacco. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Publication


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Observational
Describe rate of spread:

High Tree Tobacco seed set can reach nearly 100% in manually pollinated flowers. Trees grow rapidly and produce viable seed within a couple of years.


Sources of information:

Scott Oneto, personal observations


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Other Published Material
Describe trend:

Increasing, but less rapidly Although it is not well documented across the state, tree tobacco occurs along much of the coast and into the valley floor. In its native habitat, tree tobacco can grow at altitudes of 3700 meters.


Sources of information:

USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Tree tobacco is a prolific seed producer with seed set close to 100%. Plants are self compatible and are fertilized by moths and hummingbirds. In warmer regions of California, plants can flower almost year round. Young trees can grow 3-4 feet a year and mature trees can also reproduce asexually through rhizome sprouting.


Sources of information:

Wilken D., Hannah L. 1998; Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae) Tree Tobacco. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Publication


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

First introduced as an ornamental, tree tobacco was widely planted for its beautiful yellow tubular flowers. Many infestations can be found downstream from old dwellings. Although it is not planted as widely, it can still be found for sale on the internet.


Sources of information:

Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? B Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds are produced in large quantities in capsules. The seeds are minute and can be carried long distances either by falling on bypassing animals or by moving in watersheds. Brushing up against trees will casue a large number of seeds to disperse which can then be lodged into the hair or coat of animals. Water can also move seeds downstream where new infestations will emerge.


Sources of information:

Wilken D., Hannah L. 1998; Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae) Tree Tobacco. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Publication


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Observational
Identify other regions:

Weedy in other states including Hawaii, and most of the southern states. Wherever it was planted as an ornamental, a source for new infestations exists.


Sources of information:

Observational and USDA NRCS Plants Database. http://plants.usda.gov/index.html


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

First introduced into California as an ornamental in the 1800's. It invades several California types Old home sites serve as a consistent seed source for down stream invasisons. Once established, it produces numerouse seeds that can be further distributed.


Sources of information:

Wilken D., Hannah L. 1998; Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae) Tree Tobacco. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Publication
Meyers-Rice, B., Randall J. Weed Report: Nicotiana glauca, Tree Tobacco. The Nature Conservancy Wildlands Weeds Management and Research 1998-99 Weed Survey.
Personal observations: Joe DiTomaso, UC Davis; Joanna Clines, Sierra National Forest; Alison Stanton, BMP Ecosciences; Cynthia Roye, California State Parks.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Other Published Material
Describe distribution:

Most noticeable along roadsides, disturbed sites, recently burned areas, and in stream corridors


Sources of information:

Wilken D., Hannah L. 1998; Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae) Tree Tobacco. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Publication
Meyers-Rice, B., Randall J. Weed Report: Nicotiana glauca, Tree Tobacco. The Nature Conservancy Wildlands Weeds Management and Research 1998-99 Weed Survey.
DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less No
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Yes
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Yes
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 7
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubC, 5% - 20%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert