Plant Assessment Form

Ligustrum lucidum

Synonyms: Esquirolia sinensis; Ligustrum compactum var. latifolium; Ligustrum esquirolii

Common Names: glossy privet; broad-leaved privet; tree privet

Evaluated on: 8/10/04

List committee review date: 27/08/2004

Re-evaluation date: 10/17/2017

Evaluator(s)

Mark Newhouser/Program Director, Arundo Eradication and Coordination Program
Sonoma Ecology Center
205 First Street West Sonoma, CA 95476
(707) 996-0712 ext.103
mnewhouser@vom.com
Ramona Robison/Science Program Manager
Cal-IPC
510-843-3902 x 305
rrobison@cal-ipc.org

List commitee members

Alison Stanton
Peter Warner
John Randall
Cynthia Roye
Jake Sigg
Joe DiTomaso

General Comments

Reviewed by Ramona Robison on 1/6/17 and added to 2017 update species. Reviewed by sub-committee on January 25, 2017.

Information received from local experts on distribution and spread and added to the PAF in 2017. Ramona Robison

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score CDCD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community D. Negligible Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
15 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Observational
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

In Australia, privet can establish dense stands that out-compete and shade native plant species, so it is impacting light availability in areas where it grows in dense stands. L. lucidum also competes with native vegetation for soil nutrients and water by forming a dense shallow fibrous root system that can exploit available water and nutrients, so it is altering hydrology and nutrient dynamics. Since L. lucidum is not forming dense stands or expanding rapidly throughout most of California, this question is scored as Minor.


Sources of information:

Parsons W.T. and E.G. Cuthbertson 2001.
Ribichich, A. M. and J. Protomastro 1998.
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

In Australia, privet can establish dense stands that out-compete and shade native plant species. The trees are long-lived and form monospecific stands capable of maintaining themselves for a long period of time. The privet also competes with native vegetation for soil nutrients and water by forming a dense shallow fibrous root system that can exploit available water and nutrients. In California, L. lucidum is reported as spreading in creeks in Santa Cruz County, and in riparian vegetation and shaded forests in Marin and Alameda counties, but typically as isolated individuals rather than dense stands or patches (Hyland, Kelch and Wrubel pers. comms.).


Sources of information:

Parsons W.T. and E.G. Cuthbertson 2001.
Ribichich, A. M. and J. Protomastro 1998.
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.
Hyland, T. Personal communication.
Kelch, D. Personal communication.
Wrubel, E. Personal communication.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? C Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Fruits of the privet are eaten by many generalist avain frugivores, but it has been associated with the poisoning of livestock. The bark contains tannin and the fruits contain a number of possibly toxic chemicals. Although fruits are eaten by birds, privet is able to displace native vegetation and alter habitat for other wildlife dependent on native plant species. In California, Aslan demostrated the use and dispersal of L. lucidum by native birds, and her results indicate that L. lucidum is a likely riparian invader. Not widely enough spread in CA ecotypes to affect higher trophic levels.


Sources of information:

Aslan 2010.
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. (1999).
Panetta, F. D. (2000).
Pers.comm. 2004. JD, JR, PW


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

No reports of hybridization between species of privets. No privets native to CA.


Sources of information:

Jepson eFlora 2017
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Soil disturbance, construction, and changed water dynamics have allowed and increased the establishment of the Glossy Privet in many areas in Australia. The privet benefits from increased nutrient levels in urban runoff. Disturbance lessens competition from native plants and increases moisture and soil nutrient availability. It is reported as spreading in creeks in Santa Cruz County, and in riparian vegetation and shaded forests in Marin and Alameda counties, but typically as isolated individuals rather than stands or patches (Hyland and Wrubel pers. comms.). Is also highly invasive and spreading rapidly in Bidwell Park, Butte County (Mason, pers. comm.), and in Sonoma County (Mason, pers. comm.).


Sources of information:

Dascanio L.M., Barrera M.D., Frangi J.L. 1994.
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.
Hyland, T. Personal communication.
Kelch, D. Personal communication.
Mason, S. Personal communication.
Wrubel, E. Personal communication.
Warner, P. Personal communication.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

Glossy Privet is documented as occurring in 15 counties in California and is probably more widespread (Calflora and CCH). The first collection in CCH is from 1978, and most of the documented locations are adjacent to urban areas. It is reported as spreading in creeks in Santa Cruz County, and in riparian vegetation and shaded forests in Marin and Alameda counties, but typically as isolated individuals rather than stands or patches (Hyland, Kelch and Wrubel pers. comms.). Dempsey reports that "Ligustrum is spreading into riparian corridors such as Sacramento River and its tributaries. I have encountered pioneer individuals sporadically at Bidwell-Sacramento River State Park, Woodson Bridge State Recreation Area, Colusa-Sacramento River State Rec Area, Ide Adobe State Historic Park, and have seen what it can do in Chicos Bidwell Park under similar conditions."


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E.A. Healy. 2007.
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner, John Randall, 2004.
Calflora 2016
CCH 2016
Dempsey, J. 2017. Personal communication.
Hyland, T. Personal communication.
Kelch, D. Personal communication.
Wrubel, E. Personal communication.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe trend:

Reports of Glossy privet spreading rapidly along the Mendocino coast was checked by Peter Warner and found to be not privet and was refuted (2004). Observed in riparian areas and on urban edges, increasing but not doubling in 10 years (Warner, Wrubel, Kelch and Hyland, pers. comms.). Is also highly invasive and spreading rapidly in Bidwell Park, Butte County (Mason, pers. comm.).


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. and E.A. Healy. 2007
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner, John Randall, 2004.
Hyland, T. Personal communication.
Kelch, D. Personal communication.
Mason, S. Personal communication.
Wrubel, E. Personal communication.
Warner, P. Personal communication.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Panetta, F. D. 2000.
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.


Sources of information:

Glossy privet is used as an ornamental plant and is easily established in disturbed areas. Privet is used as an ornamental and then dispersed through birds eating the fruit. It has been spread by construction in some areas. Widely planted as ornamental in CA, and commonly naturalized in urban-wildland interface (Wrubel and Warner, pers. comms.). Listed in the Sunset Western Garden Book.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Glossy privet is used as an ornamental plant and is easily established in disturbed areas. Privet is used as an ornamental and then dispersed through birds eating the fruit. It has been spread by construction in some areas. Widely planted as ornamental in CA, and commonly naturalized in urban-wildland interface (Wrubel and Warner, pers. comms.). Listed in the Sunset Western Garden Book.


Sources of information:

Brenzel, K. 2007
Dascanio L.M., Barrera M.D., Frangi J.L. 1994.
Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Birds commonly consume fruits and disperse seed. One study documented dispersal of seed up to 1 km from feeding site by pied currawongs in Australia. In California, Aslan demostrated the use and dispersal of L. lucidum by native birds, and her results indicate results indicate that L. lucidum is a likely riparian invader.


Sources of information:

Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. (1999).
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner, John Randall, 2004.
Aslan 2010.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

L. lucidum is native to The Glossy privet has been naturalized in the southern U.S. from Texas to North Carolina. It is also widely reported from Spain, and southern France in areas that have similar climate to CA. Portions of range in E. Australia and New Zealand also have climate overlap with California It has also invaded tropical forests, broad-leafed forests, coastal areas, and forest margins in eastern Australia and the North Island of New Zealand. It was also found in sub-tropical wetlands of Argentina. None of these tropical ecotypes exist in CA, so this question is scored as already invaded for habitat types which exist in CA.


Sources of information:

Swarbrick, J. T., S. M. Timmins, et al. 1999.
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner, John Randall, 2004.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Observational

Present in one major and two minor ecotypes in CA. Glossy Privet is documented as occurring in 15 counties in California and is probably more widespread (Calflora and CCH). The first collection in CCH is from 1978, and most of the documented locations are adjacent to urban areas. Also occurs in broadleaf upland forest (<1%), and north coast coniferous forest (<1%), as well as riparian areas and shaded forests (Kelch, Wrubel, Dempsey and Hyland, pers. comms.). Over years, I have seen privet in non-landscaped settings regularly ‹ rarely in abundance -- generally in mesic, somewhat shaded habitats, including near but not in streams, evergreen and deciduous woodlands, marshy ground, and disturbed, moist thickets (Warner, pers. comm.).


Sources of information:

Observational, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner, John Randall, 2004.
Calflora and CCH 2016.
Dempsey, J. Personal communication.
Hyland, T. Personal communication.
Kelch, D. Personal communication.
Wrubel, E. Personal communication.
Warner, P. Personal communication.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Present in less than 5% of riparian ecotypes in CA, as well as boradleaved upland forest and north coast coniferous forest.


Sources of information:

Observational, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner, John Randall, 2004.
Calflora and CCH 2017.
Hyland, T. Personal communication.
Kelch, D. Personal communication.
Wrubel, E. Personal communication.
Warner, P. Personal communication.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less No
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forestD, < 5%
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodlandD, < 5%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestD, < 5%
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions