Plant Assessment Form

Leucanthemum vulgare

Synonyms: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Common Names: ox-eye daisy; dog daisy; margriet; marguerite daisy; moon daisy; white daisy; yellow daisy;

Evaluated on: 3/24/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Joanna Clines
Cynthia Roye
Doug Johnson

General Comments

Most common in northern California and coastal areas.

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UBBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Observational
Invasiveness?
Total Points
14 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal A. High Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can occasionally form dense stands that which choke out other vegetation in pastures and meadows.


Sources of information:

Montana Weed Control Association. no date. Oxeye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum). Available: http://www.mtweed.org/identification/oxeye_daisy/oxeye_daisy.html. Accessed 3/24/05


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Most large herbivores avoid it and instead feed on grasses. Livestock generally avoid grazing the foliage, and milk from dairy cattle that have consumed the plant can have an unpleasant flavor. Oxeye daisy can host the yellow dwarf potato virus.
Threatens three federally-listed butterfly species on San Bruno Mountain in the Bay Area.


Sources of information:

Montana Weed Control Association. no date. Oxeye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum). Available: http://www.mtweed.org/identification/oxeye_daisy/oxeye_daisy.html. Accessed 3/24/05
DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.
Jake Sigg, California Native Plant Society, San Francisco, pers.comm.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

No native Leucanthemum species, but there are native Chrysanthemum. No information on hybridization.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Although it will easily establish in disturbed sites, it can on occasional invade undistrubed areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Locally can increase, but not rapidly. Populations expanding in Shasta County.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Observational
Describe trend:

Still expanding in state.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Perennial. Prolific seed producer: one plant can produce 26,000 seeds. Reproduction is primarily through seed dispersal and germination, but spreading root stalks also contribute to spread. One study found that 82% of seeds were viable after 6 years and 1 percent were viable after 39 years. Seed production is often prolific, especially when abundant moisture is available. Some seeds can remain viable for up to about 20 years or more under field conditions.


Sources of information:

Montana Weed Control Association. no date. Oxeye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum). Available: http://www.mtweed.org/identification/oxeye_daisy/oxeye_daisy.html. Accessed 3/24/05
DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA
DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds disperse with water and animals, but this is probably unusual. Seeds can survive ingestion by animals.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to Europe. Present in every US state (1).


Sources of information:

1. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Invasive in pastures, disturbed mountain meadows, and fields (1). Present in Sonoma, Mendocino, Mono, and San Diego counties (2). In California, it is most invasive in moist grassland and coastal scrub. Oxeye daisy is a state-listed noxious weed in Colorado, Minnesota (secondary), Montana (category 1), Ohio (prohibited), Washington (class B, plant quarantine), and Wyoming. It is also a noxious weed in southeastern Australia (3).


Sources of information:

1. Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA
2. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
3. DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

Most common in northern California and coastal areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.
Peter Warner, California State Parks, observational
Joanna Clines, US Forest Service, observational
Alison Stanton, BMP Ecosciences, observational


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually Unknown
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes
Total points: 8
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubD, < 5%
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieC, 5% - 20%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seepD, < 5%
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestC, 5% - 20%
closed cone coniferous forestD, < 5%
lower montane coniferous forestD, < 5%
upper montane coniferous forestD, < 5%
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East