Plant Assessment Form

Helminthotheca echioides

Synonyms: Picris echioides; Helminthia echidoides

Common Names: bristly ox-tongue; bugloss; bugloss-picris

Evaluated on: 4/6/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph DiTomaso
University of California-Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
John Randall
Carri Pirosko
Dan Gluesenkamp
Gina Skurka
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

Removed second scientific name, Picris echioides, and added it to the synonym line 3/28/17. Ramona Robison

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score UCUD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Observational
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels U. Unknown
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
11 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Other Published Material
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal C. Low Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can become dense stands in coastal areas. Often confused with yellow starthistle from a distance and can form infestions slightly less in density. However, mostly a trailside plant that occasionally forms patches in grasslands.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.
Dan Gluesenkamp, Audubon Canyon Ranch, pers. obs.
Brianna Richardson, Acterra, pers. obs.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? U
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

None No other species of Picris in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Inhabits disturbed places such as roadsides, fields, pastures, etc.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

Common throughout most of state, but can spread when it gets into a new site.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Other Published Material
Describe trend:

Probably still increasing in the state. Main areas of expansion appear to be in the Central Valley.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Winter or summer annual or biennial. Plants exist as basal rosettes until flower stems develop at maturity. Flowers May to September or October. Reproduces by seed. Seeds germinate in fall after the rains begin or in the spring depending on location and climate.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Some seeds disperse with soil movement, or by clinging to tools, tires, and machinery.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds disperse short distances with wind and disperse longer distances with water.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to Europe. Present in Oregon, Washington, the midwest, and the northeastern U.S. (1).


Sources of information:

USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

Present in coastal counties from Sonoma to San Diego, and also Glenn, Butte, and Riverside counties (1). Common throughout most of California, except deserts and Great Basin, to 450m. Most common in seasonally wet places. Thrives on clay soils, especially those high in calcium (2).


Sources of information:

1. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. DiTomaso, J., and E. Healy. in prep. Weeds of California and Other Western States.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

Very common along the coast prairie areas in the central portion of the state.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubD, < 5%
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieC, 5% - 20%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seepD, < 5%
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions