Plant Assessment Form

Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens

Synonyms: Bromus rubens

Common Names: red brome; foxtail chess

Evaluated on: 2/10/03

List committee review date: 10/02/2003

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Matt Brooks/Reearch Botanist
U.S. Geological Surveye
160 N.Stephanie St., Henderson, NV 89074
702-564-4615
matt_brooks@usgs.gov

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
Joe DiTomaso
John Randall
Peter Warner
Doug Johnson
John Hall
Cindy Roye
Dana Backer

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? High
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact?
Four-part score ABBU Total Score
A
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity U. Unknown Observational
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
14 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal A. High Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Observational
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Observational
Distribution?
Total Score A
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
A. High Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

A: fire, soil nutrient status (via fire-induced changes) Increases fuel continuity and flammability. Removal of shrub cover alters microhabitat characterisitcs and soil nutrient cycling and distribution.


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L. 1999a. Alien annual grasses and fire in the Mojave Desert. Madro_o 46:13-19, Brooks, M.L., and T.C. Esque. 2002. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:330-340. Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Noxious Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76. Brooks, M.L. and D. Pyke. 2001. Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. Pp. 1-14 In K. Galley and T. Wilson (eds.), Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The Role of Fire In the Control and Spread of Invasive Species. Fire Conference 2000: The First National Congress on Fire, Ecology, Prevention and Management. Miscellaneous Publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

B: May reduce vigor, fecundity, and species diveristy of native annual plant communities. Can compete with native annual plants, reducing the biomass and species richness of seedling cohorts. Can have high % cover, but usually only after disturbances such as fire, creation of new thach layer in semi-arid systems may extirpate native plants (but not actually documented)


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L. 2000. Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert. American Midland Naturalist 144:92-108. Brooks, M.L. 2000a. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Noxious Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76. Brooks, M.L. and D. Pyke. 2001. Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. Pp. 1-14 In K. Galley and T. Wilson (eds.), Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The Role of Fire In the Control and Spread of Invasive Species. Fire Conference 2000: The First National Congress on Fire, Ecology, Prevention and Management. Miscellaneous Publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

B: may alter wildlife habitat for T&E species such as the desert tortoise and the sage grouse. By promoting fire, red brome may promote the conversion of native shrubland to alien annual grassland. Competes with native annual plants that are preferred forage for the desert tortoise. Seeds cached by desert granivorous rodents.


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L., and T.C. Esque. 2002. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:330-340. Brooks, M.L. and D. Pyke. 2001. Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. Pp. 1-14 In K. Galley and T. Wilson (eds.), Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The Role of Fire In the Control and Spread of Invasive Species. Fire Conference 2000: The First National Congress on Fire, Ecology, Prevention and Management. Miscellaneous Publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USABrooks, M.L. 2000. Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert. American Midland Naturalist 144:92-108.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? U Observational

U: May hybidize with alien Bromus and become more invasive, may hybrize with native Bromus May hybidize with Bromus tectorum, and evolve to expand its environmental potential range. No known hyrbidization with native Bromus spp., although numerous species exist.


Sources of information:

James Young, Rangeland Scientist, USDA-ARS personal communication.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe role of disturbance:

B: Can establish in relatively undisturbed areas, but will not likely rise to extreme dominance without disturbance. Much higher cover in previously burned areas, and slightly higher cover in areas exposed to OHV and livestock grazing, compared to relatively undisturbed areas. However, can occur in relatively undisturbed regions. Dominance often more limted by soil nutrient status than disturbance in desert regions.


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L., and T.C. Esque. 2002. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:330-340.Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Noxious Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76. Brooks, M.L. and D. Pyke. 2001. Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. Pp. 1-14 In K. Galley and T. Wilson (eds.), Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The Role of Fire In the Control and Spread of Invasive Species. Fire Conference 2000: The First National Congress on Fire, Ecology, Prevention and Management. Miscellaneous Publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. Brooks, M.L. 1999. Habitat invasibility.. Biological Invasions.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe rate of spread:

B: May spread rapidly, recolonizing areas where it was previously extirpated due to drought. Years of high rainfall result in population explosions and spread.


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L., and T.C. Esque. 2002. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:330-340.Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Noxious Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76. Brooks, M.L. and D. Pyke. 2001. Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. Pp. 1-14 In K. Galley and T. Wilson (eds.), Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The Role of Fire In the Control and Spread of Invasive Species. Fire Conference 2000: The First National Congress on Fire, Ecology, Prevention and Management. Miscellaneous Publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

C: Has likely reach maximum distribution under current rainfall and land use regimes. has been present in the state since the 1800s, and was noted to be a dominant disturbance follower from the early 1900s.


Sources of information:

Brooks, personal observation Brooks, M.L., and T.C. Esque. 2002. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:330-340.Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Invasive Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Invasive Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76.


Sources of information:

A: spread by adhereing to clothing and livestock, also in some seed mixes used for landscaping,


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

A: spread by adhereing to clothing and livestock, also in some seed mixes used for landscaping,


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Invasive Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

A: moderately high Barbed awns allow long-distance dispersal via hitchhiking on animals. Native granivorous rodents also collect and cache seeds on the soil surface.


Sources of information:

Brooks, M.L. 2000. Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husnot [ B. rubens L.], Foxtail Chess (Red Brome). In: Bossard, C., Hoshovsky, M. and Randall, J. (Eds.). Invasive Wildland Weeds of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 72-76.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Observational
Identify other regions:

C: Has invaded Europe, Africa, Asia appears to have reached current extent of distribution in California, and has invaded similar habitats there as elsewhere


Sources of information:

Bor, N.L. 1968. Bromus. in Townsend, Guest, and Al-Rawi. Flora of Iraq. Volume 9. Ministry of Agriculture of Republic of Iraq, Baghdad, Iraq.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Observational

A: scrub chaparral, grassland, woodland scrub chaparral, grassland, woodland


Sources of information:

Matt Brooks pers obs


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? A Observational
Describe distribution:

A: widespread in arid, semi-arid, and mesic systems.


Sources of information:

Matt Brooks pers obs


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrubA, > 50%
coastal scrubA, > 50%
Sonoran desert scrubC, 5% - 20%
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)B, 20% - 50%
Great Basin scrubD, < 5%
chenopod scrubC, 5% - 20%
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrubB, 20% - 50%
chaparralB, 20% - 50%
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieB, 20% - 50%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grasslandD, < 5%
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandC, 5% - 20%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)C, 5% - 20%
Woodlandcismontane woodlandC, 5% - 20%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): A
Distribution (highest score): A

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest
  • Great Basin Province
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert