Plant Assessment Form

Brachypodium distachyon

Synonyms: Bromus distachya (L.) Link., Trachynia distachya (L.) Link

Common Names: annual false-brome; false brome; purple false brome; stiff brome

Evaluated on: 1/3/07

List committee review date: 14/02/2007

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Elizabeth Brusati, project manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442A Walnut St. #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510-843-3902
edbrusati@cal-ipc.org
Joseph M. DiTomaso
Univ. of California, Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Joe DiTomaso
Peter Warner
Joanna Clines

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Moderate
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes B Observational
Impact?
Four-part score BBBD Total Score
B
1.2 ?Impact on plant community B. Moderate Observational
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels B. Moderate Other Published Material
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Observational
Invasiveness?
Total Points
11 Total Score B
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state B. Increasing less rapidly Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
C. Low Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal C. Rare Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? B Observational
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Can form dense stands that can change fire regimes and build up thick litter layers.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
B Observational
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can form dense stands in some locations, particularly in oak woodlands. These near monotypic stands can reduce diversity and prevent native species from establishing.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? B Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Fibrous stems make it a poor forage. Long awns can also injure animals.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA. text here


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

None No native Brachypodium in Calfornia.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
B Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Generally found in disturbed areas, but can readily move into relatively undisturbed grasslands and oak woodlands.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? B Observational
Describe rate of spread:

Seems to still be spreading, but probably at a relatively slow rate statewide. Regionally it can spread rapidly.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? B Observational
Describe trend:

Locally abundant in California, but still spreading statewide.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? C Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Winter annual. Reproduces by seed. Spikelets and florets April to June.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Florets can be dispersed by vehicle tires and human activities, particularly in contaminated hay.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA. text here


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? C Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Florets fall near the plant and may disperse with animals.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA. text here


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

Native to southern Europe. Present in Oregon, Colorado, Texas, and New Jersey. Found in similar habitats in other regions of the country and in its native range.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? B Other Published Material

Sierra Nevada foothills, Central Valley, southern North Coast ranges, southern Cascade Range foothills, Central Western region, South Coast, Santa Catalina and Channel Islands, to 600m. Invades dry slopes and fields, roadsides, disturbed grasslands, margins of shrub thickets. Tolerates partial shade in oak woodlands.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J. M., and E. A. Healy. 2007. Weeds of California and Other Western States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3488. Oakland, CA. text here


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

Common in grasslands and in oak woodlands


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter No
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 2
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: C?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grasslandC, 5% - 20%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodlandC, 5% - 20%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest