Plant Assessment Form

Bellardia trixago

Synonyms: Bartsia trixago L., Rhinanthus trixago L.

Common Names: bellardia; mediterranean lineseed

Evaluated on: 6/30/05

List committee review date: 08/07/2005

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Joseph M. DiTomaso
University of California, Davis
Dept. Plant Sci., Mail Stop 4, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
jmditomaso@ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Carla Bossard
John Randall
Carri Pirosko
Dan Gluesenkamp
Gina Skurka
Brianna Richardson

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes U
Impact?
Four-part score UCUD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels U. Unknown
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
7 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Observational
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal D. Does not occur Observational
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal D. None Observational
2.7 ?Other regions invaded U. Unknown
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
C. Limited Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score C
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? U
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

No information, but does not form large colonies or infestations.


Sources of information:

Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Bellardia is a hemiparasite and is partially dependent on host plants for obtaining nutrients. In California, bellardia can invade serpentine sites and may displace rare serpentine natives, but it rarely forms dense populations. Typically acts similar to a native.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? U
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Unknown


Sources of information:

Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

No native Bellardia species in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA enter text here


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Observational
Describe role of disturbance:

Appears to move into both disturbed and undisturbed areas.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Observational
Describe rate of spread:

General it does not expand much when in an area.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

Does not appear to be expanding range in the state.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? A Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Winter annual. The biology of bellardia is poorly understood. However, the seeds of many related parasitic plants can remain viable in the soil seedbank for several years (up to about 20 years in some cases). The biology of these species is poorly understood.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? D Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Not much opportunity to disperse long distances.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? D Observational
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

No information, but appears to have no long distance mechanism for spread.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? U
Identify other regions:

No information on other habitats it invades elsewhere, but all likely that it is probably grasslands.


Sources of information:

Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? C Other Published Material

Bellardia typically inhabits annual grasslands. In California, bellardia can invade serpentine sites and may displace rare serpentine natives. Disturbed grasslands, including serpentine grasslands, fields, roadsides.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2006. Weeds of California. UC DANR Publ. #3488.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Most common on coastal foothill grasslands, but not a common species.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, observational.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 6
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: A?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairieD, < 5%
valley and foothill grasslandD, < 5%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): C
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest