Plant Assessment Form

Bassia hyssopifolia

Synonyms: Echinopsilon hyssopifolius (Pallus) Moq., Kochia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Schrad., Salsola hyssopifolia (Pall.)

Common Names: five-hook bassia; five horn bassia; five-horn smotherweed; hyssop-leaved echinopsilon; smotherweed; thorn orache;

Evaluated on: 8/3/04

List committee review date: 27/08/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Brianna Richardson, Project Manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442-A Walnut Street #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510.843.3902
brichardson@cal-ipc.org
Matt Brooks
U.S. Geological Survey
160 N.Stephanie St., Henderson, NV 89074
702-564-4615
matt_brooks@usgs.gov

List commitee members

Jake Sigg
Peter Warner
Joe DiTomaso
Cynthia Roye
Alison Stanton
John Randall

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? Limited
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 2.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes D Other Published Material
Impact?
Four-part score DCDD Total Score
C
1.2 ?Impact on plant community C. Minor Other Published Material
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels D. Negligible Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Other Published Material
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment C. Minor Other Published Material
Invasiveness?
Total Points
10 Total Score C
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management C. Stable Other Published Material
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state C. Stable Observational
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal B. Moderate Other Published Material
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Other Published Material
2.7 ?Other regions invaded U. Unknown
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
D. Very low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? D Other Published Material
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

None. There is no evidence that Bassia alters ecosystem processes.


Sources of information:

Bossard, CC, JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky. 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press: 62-65.


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
C Other Published Material
Identify type of impact or alteration:

In the densest stands it may form a monoculture. More commonly persists in clumps. Evidence currently limited to one population at the Kern River. Alteration can occur, but the frequency of this is undocumented.


Sources of information:

Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia.


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? D Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Toxic to sheep when ingested in large amounts. Acts as a late summer host to leafhopper genus Lygus in NV. Seeds are eaten by green-winged teal wintering in CA. No sources document toxicity to wildlife.


Sources of information:

James, L.F., M.C. Williams, A.T. Bleak. 1976. Toxicity of Bassia hyssopifolia to sheep. Journal of Range Management 29(4): 284-285.
Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia.
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States.
An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds. Univeristy of Arizon Press. Accessed 8/11/2004. www.aupress.arizona.edu/onlinebks/weeds/fivehook.htm.
Euliss, NH Jr., SW Harris. 1987. Feeding ecology of northen pintails and green-winged teal wintering in California. Journal of Wildlife Mangement. 51(4): 724-732. Accessed from Northern Prarie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. www.npwrc.usgs.gov. 8/11/2004.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Other Published Material

None. There are no relatives native in California.


Sources of information:

Hickman, JC. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
C Other Published Material
Describe role of disturbance:

Most common in disturbed sites, roads, fields, especially on alkaline soils. Can establish in undisturbed sites, but more commonly establishes in sites disturbed by human activity. Especially dominant adjacent to agricultural fields, and within abandonded fields, in desert regions, the Colorado River Valley, and the southern central valley of California.


Sources of information:

CalFlora database. www.calflora.org. Accessed 8/3/04.
Bossard, CC, JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky. 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press: 62-65.
Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia.
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States
Matt Brooks, personal observation
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? C Other Published Material
Describe rate of spread:

At the Kern River Preserve, it is being replaced by native species. Is persistant but is not increasing.
In the Amargosa River Valley in the Mojave Desert, it has rapidly spread into a saltgrass/mesquite area recently disturbed by fire. Local rate of spread is stable or declining without management. In burned areas it can increase in dominance rapidly, but its persistence is unknown.


Sources of information:

Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia
Matt Brooks, personal observation.
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? C Observational
Describe trend:

After introduction into the US, the plant spread rapidly. Stable within state.


Sources of information:

Collins, S.L., W.H. Blackwell Jr. 1979. Bassia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Sida 8(1): 57-64.
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Other Published Material
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Annual. Reproduces by seed, which easily attach to fur or feathers of passing animals. Flowers July-October. Produces "abundant" seed. Doesn't spread vegetatively. 4 points


Sources of information:

Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia.
CalFlora database. www.calflora.org. Accessed 8/3/04.
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States.
Knight, A.P., R.G. Walter. 2001. A Guide to Plant Poisoning. Teton New Media: Wyoming: 266-267.
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall 2004.


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? B Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Likely spread on the Kern River Preserve by human disturbance, road bldg, and ditch clearing. Road building or ditch clearing help establish and spread. Closely associated with agricultural developments in the desert regions, Colorado River Valley, and the southern central valley areas of California. Human dispersal occurs, but it is usually not intentional and is therefore less prevalent.


Sources of information:

Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia.
Bossard, CC, JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky. 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press: 62-65
Matt Brooks, personal observation..


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Other Published Material
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Seeds are designed to easily attach to fur or feathers of passing animals, this is believed to be a major method of spread. Freqent opportunity for spread via animal movement.


Sources of information:

Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia (cites Collins and Blackwell, 1979).


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? U
Identify other regions:

Present in HI, WA, OR, NV, AZ, TX, CO, UT, ID, MT, NM, WY. Noxious weed in CO, MN, OR, and WA. Unclear which ecotypes anywhere are invaded.


Sources of information:

USDA Plants Database. http://plants.usda.gov. Accessed 8/3/04.


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? A Other Published Material

First introduced to the US (NV) in 1915, probably as a seed contaminant. Present in San Joaquin Valley, Owens Valley, the Santa Ana, Imperial, and Palo Verde Valleys, northward through Sacramento Valley and eastward into the Mojave Desert and Colorado River Valley. Common in Riverside and San Bernadino counties (though not a major problem). A problem at Morongo Canyon and Creighton Ranch in CA. Found in roadsides, disturbed places, crop fields, and seasonal wetlands. Tolerates alkaline and saline soil, and drought. Found in spiny saltbush and mixed lowland associations of the San Joaquin, Owns River, Santa Ana River, Imperial, Coachella, Palo Verde, Colorado River,valleys. Largely a weed of abandoned pastures and other disturbed ruderal areas. Invades riparian habitats and playa edges in the deserts of California. Found in at least 3 major ecotypes and 4 minor. (Note: I was unable to correlate "spiny saltbush" and "mixed lowland association" with the ecotype table = "chenopod scrub". I correlated "alkaline flats" with alkali playa, which might be inaccurate. BR)


Sources of information:

Hoshovsky, M. 2000. The Nature Conservancy Elemental Abstract for Bassia hyssopifolia.
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States.
Bossard, CC, JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky. 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press: 62-65.
Van Devender, TR., RS Felger, A Burquez M. 1997. Exotic plants in the Sonoran Desert region, Arizona and Sonora. California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium Proceedings.
USGS. Western wetland flora. Field Office Guide Plant Species. Northen Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Accessed 8/11/2004. www.npwrc.usgs.gov.
Matt Brooks, personal observation.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? D Observational
Describe distribution:

Occurs at <5% of any one ecological type


Sources of information:

Matt Brooks, personal observation.
Observational, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned No
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubD, < 5%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrubD, < 5%
chenopod scrubD, < 5%
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grassland
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playaD, < 5%
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D, < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): D

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • ALL
  • CA Floristic Province
  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Desert Province
  • Mojave Desert
  • Sonoran Desert
  • Great Basin Province
  • Great Valley
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Sierra Nevada East
  • Southwest