Plant Assessment Form

Aegilops triuncialis

Synonyms: barbed goatgrass, several other scientific names

Common Names: barb goatgrass

Evaluated on: 27-Jul-04

List committee review date: 27/08/2004

Re-evaluation date:

Evaluator(s)

Joseph M. DiTomaso
University of California, Davis
Weed Science Program, Robbins Hall, Davis, CA 95616
530-754-8715
ditomaso@vegmail.ucdavis.edu

List commitee members

Jake Sigg
Peter Warner
Alison Stanton
Cyntha Roye
Joe DiTomaso
John Randall

General Comments

No general comments for this species

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score? High
Alert Status? No Alert
Documentation? 3.5 out of 5
Score Documentation
1.1 ?Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes A Observational
Impact?
Four-part score AAAD Total Score
A
1.2 ?Impact on plant community A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 ?Impact on higher trophic levels A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 ?Impact on genetic integrity D. None Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.1 ?Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Invasiveness?
Total Points
17 Total Score A
2.2 ?Local rate of spread with no management A. Increases rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.3 ?Recent trend in total area infested within state A. Increasing rapidly Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.4 ?Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 ?Potential for human-caused dispersal A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.6 ? Potential for natural long-distance dispersal A. Frequent Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 ?Other regions invaded C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 ?Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
Distribution?
Total Score B
3.2 ?Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
C. Low Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".

Section 1: Impact
Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes? A Observational
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:

Changes fire frequency, utilizes high amounts of soil moisture.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. observational 2004 and yet unpublished research


Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions?
A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Can form near monotypic stands. Populations of 50% cover and greater are common.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M., K.L. Heise, G.B. Kyser, A. M. Merenlender, and R. J. Keiffer. 2001. Carefully timed burning can control barb goatgrass. California Agriculture 55(6):47-53


Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify type of impact or alteration:

Awns can be harmful to wildlife. Documented to be mechanically injurious to livestock. Can also reduce forage for wildlife, has been show to reduce forage for livestock by 50-75%.


Sources of information:

Kennedy, P.B. 1928. Goatgrass or wild wheat (Aegilops triuncialis). Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 20(12):1292-1296.; Peters, A., D.E. Johnson and M.R. George. 1996. Barb goatgrass: a threat to California rangelands. Rangelands 18(1):8-10.


Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity? D Reviewed Scientific Publication

There are no native Aegilops in California. It can hybridize with Triticum, but there are not native as well.


Sources of information:

Kennedy, P.B. 1928. Goatgrass or wild wheat (Aegilops triuncialis). Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 20(12):1292-1296.; Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson Manual. UC Press.


Section 2: Invasiveness
Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment?
A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe role of disturbance:

Often found in disturbed roadside environments, but has been observed to be in other sites, including ponds and open grassy areas, particularly with some moisture. DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR (in press)


Sources of information:

Harrison,S., C. Hohn and S. Ratay. 2002. Distribution of exotic plants along roads in a peninsular nature reserve. Biological Invasions 4:425-430.; DiTomaso, J.M. observational 2004


Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe rate of spread:

Can rapidly take over a grassland area. Reported that barb goatgrass can expand from a single infesattion to dominance of a ranch in 20 years.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR (in press); DiTomaso, J.M. observational 2004; Peters, A., D.E. Johnson and M.R. George. 1996. Barb goatgrass: a threat to California rangelands. Rangelands 18(1):8-10.


Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe trend:

Over past 10 years it appears to be rapidly expanding range in California.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR (in press); Dyer, A. 2003. Why babed goatgrass is different from other invasive annual grasses. Grasslands Winter:4-5.; Peters, A.. 1994. Biology and control of barb goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis L.). MS thesis. Orgon State Univ.; DiTomaso, J.M. observational 2004


Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential? B Reviewed Scientific Publication
Describe key reproductive characteristics:

Very little is known of the biology of this species. It is a shortlived bunchgrass perennial which produces numerous small seeds.


Sources of information:

Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson Manual. UC Press.; DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR (in press); Dyer, A. 2003. Why babed goatgrass is different from other invasive annual grasses. Grasslands Winter:4-5.; Peters, A., D.E. Johnson and M.R. George. 1996. Barb goatgrass: a threat to California rangelands. Rangelands 18(1):8-10.; DiTomaso, J.M. observational 2004


Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Barb goatgrass can me moved long distances along roadsides.


Sources of information:

Harrison,S., C. Hohn and S. Ratay. 2002. Distribution of exotic plants along roads in a peninsular nature reserve. Biological Invasions 4:425-430.; Peters, A., D.E. Johnson and M.R. George. 1996. Barb goatgrass: a threat to California rangelands. Rangelands 18(1):8-10.


Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal? A Reviewed Scientific Publication
Identify dispersal mechanisms:

Can be distributed on the fur and feathers of animals. Also shown to be moved by gophers.


Sources of information:

Eviner, V.T. and F.S. Chapin, III. 2003. Gopher-plant-fungal interactions affect establishment of an invasive grass. Ecology 84(1):120-128.; DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR. (in press)


Question 2.7 Other regions invaded? C Other Published Material
Identify other regions:

New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland. nter text here


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR. (in press)


Section 3: Distribution
Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range? B Reviewed Scientific Publication

Cascade Range foothills, southern North Coast Ranges, Sacramento Valley, northern and central Sierra Nevada foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay region, South Coast Ranges, to 1100 m. Mainly found in grasslands and oak woodlands. It was probably inctroduced around 1915.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso and Healy. 2005. Weeds of California and other western states. UC ANR. (in press); Kennedy, P.B. 1928. Goatgrass or wild wheat (Aegilops triuncialis). Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 20(12):1292-1296.; Peters, A., D.E. Johnson and M.R. George. 1996. Barb goatgrass: a threat to California rangelands. Rangelands 18(1):8-10.


Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency? C Observational
Describe distribution:

Becoming a dominant species in the foothill grasslands of Central California.


Sources of information:

DiTomaso, J.M. observational 2004


Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years No
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Unknown
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes No
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Unknown
Total points: 4
Total unknowns: 2
Total score: B?

Related traits:

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here

Worksheet C - California Ecological Types

(sensu Holland 1986)
Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code?
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, Meadows, and other Herb Communitiescoastal prairie
valley and foothill grasslandC, 5% - 20%
Great Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD, < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodlandD, < 5%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth): B
Distribution (highest score): C

Infested Jepson Regions

Click here for a map of Jepson regions

  • Cascade Range
  • Central West
  • Great Valley
  • Modoc Plateau
  • Northwest
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Southwest